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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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ANNUAL 
REPORT 




FISCAL YEAR 
ENDING JUNE 30,1975 




O'Neill 




MDC Photo by Officer Edward J. O'Neill %$■ 




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r/?e Metropolitan District Police performs a great variety of functionJTlBiffin i unus 3/ ver 

f/7em are (c/oc/cw/se from top left] a skyway patrol particularly aimed at peak traffic probti 

wooded park reservations and crowd control., amphibious "duck" v^hci4s shown in action at tidal storrr 

Revere, tactical and crowd control officers on duty for Boston's schocrt'desegregation crisis, underwater n 

unit, marine boat patrol and traffic control over 18 miles of expressways and 168 miles of parkways and thorough 

fares in Metropolitan Boston. \ 




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MICHAELS. DUKAKIS 
Governor 

EVELYN F. MURPHY 
Secretary of Environmental Affairs 

WILLIAM J. BYRNE, JR. 
Commissioner 

Associate Commissioners 

ANITA B. BANKS 

PETER D. CORBETT 

MARIANNAD. HANNIGAN 

CONCHITA F. RODRIGUEZ 

JOHN A. KESSLER, JR. 
Secretary of the Commission 

MARTIN F.COSGROVE 
Chief Engineer 

Executive Assistants 

JOHN J. BEADES 

JAMEST.O'DONNELL 

JOHN F.SNEDEKER 
Chief Administrative Assistant 

JOHN WRIGHT 

General Counsel 



CONTENTS 

Highlights 3 

Pollution Control 4 

Water Supply 8 

Parks Development 12 

Recreation Activity 16 

Zoos 20 

Historic Sites 22 

Transportation 23 

Metropolitan District Police 24 

Organization 26 

Finance 29 

District Membership Inside Back Cover 

District Map Back Cover 



DIVISION DIRECTORS 



EDWARD C. ANDERS 
Director of Administrative Services 

FRANCIS T. BERGIN 

Chief Construction Engineer 

Engineering Division 

LAURENCE J. CARPENTER 
Superintendent of Police 

ALFRED F. FERULLO 
Director of Environmental Quality 

ALLISON C. HAYES 

Director of Sewerage Division 

Chief Sewerage Engineer 



WILLIAM T. KENNEY 
Director of Central Services 

JAMES J. MATERA 

Director of Water Division 

Chief Water Supply Engineer 

JULIA B. O'BRIEN 
Director of Land Planning 

MARTIN WEISS 
Director of Environmental Planning 

ROBERT B. WILLIAMS 
Director of Parks and Recreation 



(Incumbents as of 6/30 75) 



2M 10 76 129136 



Publication of this Document Approved by Alfred C Holland State Pure- ) 

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To His Excellency the Governor and the Secretary of Environmental Affairs: 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: 

To the Honorable Mayors, Selectmen, and Municipal Officials: 

To the Public of the Metropolitan Parks, Sewer, and Water Districts: 

The Metropolitan District Commission submits herewith a report on activities 
and other pertinent data for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975, in accordance 
with the provisions of Section 1 00, Chapter 92 of the General Laws. 

This document is designed to provide a broad overview of MDC's ac- 
complishments during fiscal 1975 and projects planned for the near future in 
providing vital regional services for 2.5 million inhabitants of 54 cities and 
towns. 

It is our hope that the report will bring greater understanding of MDC's efforts 
to satisfy basic needs, meet environmental goals and enhance the quality of 
urban life. 




Respectfully submitted, 

John A. Kessler, Jr. \, 

Secretary to the Commission 



Highlights of the Year's Activity 



Broad advances in preparation of major im- 
provements and actual construction to satisfy basic 
urban needs were achieved by the Metropolitan District 
Commission during the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1975. 

Projects and planning to enhance the quality of life 
for 2.5 million inhabitants of 54 Metropolitan Boston 
cities and towns covered a wide spectrum of regional 
services, including water supply, sewage collection 
and treatment, pollution abatement, recreation, parks, 
open space, zoos, law enforcement and movement of 
traffic. 

The most ambitious attack on pollution in MDC 
history has emerged from an intensive inter-agency 
study of wastewater managment in the Boston Harbor- 
Eastern Massachusetts Metropolitan Area. MDC heads 
the Technical Subcommittee conducting the study, 
which is recommending measures to meet long-range, 
clean-waters requirements stretching into the next 
century at a cost of $855 million to be financed with 
Federal, State and MDC funds. Meanwhile, other 
pollution control steps are underway or imminent. 
Among them are sludge disposal, harbor tidegate 
rehabilitation, sewer interceptor pipelines to enlarge 
the system's capacity, major sewerage conduits, a 
treatment facility on the Charles River estuary and a 
new Charles River Dam. 

An extensive planning and design effort has brought 
the park system to the verge of a large-scale expansion 
of recreation facilities. A construction start is slated 
for 1976 on the first stage of a Metropolitan Arena and 
Recreation Center incorporating a much-needed indoor 
schoolboy track, a new Mystic River park and the first 
of four pavilions in a year-round African Zoo designed 
to revitalize Franklin Park Zoo. An improvement 
program has begun on MDC's harbor islands as part of 
an inter-agency development of a Boston Harbor 
Islands Park. Underway also are multiphased projects 
for a major uplift and development of Stony Brook and 
Wollaston Beach reservations. Several smaller park 
developments were completed or well advanced during 
the year. Recreation activity was broadened con- 
siderably, particularly canoeing, cross-country skiing, 
sailing and nature centers. At Franklin Park Zoo, 
wildlife education programs have been instituted as 
living classrooms. In preparation for the Bicentennial, 
historic sites have been upgraded and new attractions 
installed. 

Activation of the Water District's new 6.3-mile 
Dorchester Tunnel in November has improved 
distribution and pressure for 700,000 consumers and 
opened the way for building a $17 million extension to 
augment local water supply for six potential members 



south of Boston as needs arise within five to 15 years. 
North of Boston, a pipeline was completed linking 
Woburn, a new district member, with Spot Pond 
Reservoir, but service has been delayed until 1977 
pending completion of pumping facilities. The 
district's consumption in excess of safe watershed 
yield persists, requiring additional supply sources. The 
situation has been eased temporarily by four years of 
above-normal rainfall giving rise to the prospect of 
refilling Quabbin Reservoir in 1976 for the first time in 
15 years. A comprehensive study of future water supply 
sources, distribution and conservation techniques is 
continuing, aimed at anticipated needs for the next 
half-century. A facility to alleviate the problem of lead 
content in excess of Federal standards is scheduled for 
activation in June of 1976. The process will apply a 
chemical to control corrosion in outmoded household 
lead pipes used in some older neighborhoods. A 
fluoridation plant will be under construction also next 
year, with operation planned for 1977. 

It was a busy year for Metropolitan District Police. 
Superimposed on its normal mission of law en- 
forcement, traffic duties and security of extensive MDC 
property, the police force was deeply involved in the 
Boston school desegregation crisis, racial incidents 
and emergency assistance to other police agencies. 
Operations were sharpened by two new functions. A 
62-man mobile unit known as Traffic Oriented Patrol 
Squad (TOPS) was formed primarily for enforcement at 
high-frequency accident locations and other traffic 
situations. The specially-trained officers are utilized as 
well for quick response to any emergency. An in- 
novative aerial traffic reporting system was 
inaugurated using an aircraft and pilot furnished by a 
local radio station. Aboard the plane an officer reports 
to dispatchers on accidents, breakdowns and tieups 
and directs service and emergency units to trouble 
locations. 

MDC membership now consists of 43 cities and 
towns with 2,219.000 residents in the Sewerage 
District, 34 communities and 1 .939,000 residents in the 
Water District and 37 municipalities with 2.025.000 
population in the Parks District. Twenty-four 
municipalities are members of all three districts. 12 are 
served by two districts and 18 by one district. 

Total expenditure for the fiscal year ending June 30. 
1975, was $76,810,934. including $4,251,973 for 
projects funded by state highway bond issues and 
other state-financed activity such as flood control 
work. This compared with $72,644,389 in 1974. of 
which $4,273,945 came from state-financed bond 
issues, rather than MDC District funding. The increase 
amounted to 5.7%. 




T7T77^Ka » 



Proposed 



An intensive inter-agency study of methods for 
combatting pollution in the Boston Harbor-Eastern 
Massachusetts Metropolitan Area (EMMA), vitally 
affecting the Metropolitan Sewerage District, has 
reached its near-final stage. 

The clean-waters program as presently recom- 
mended calls for projects on an unprecedented scale to 
meet needs for the next 30 years. Estimated cost at 
today's prices is approximately $855 million funded 
from Federal, state and local sources. 

A significant new approach is a recommendation for 
two advanced inland plants discharging highly-treated, 
recovered effluent into the middle reaches of the 
Charles River and the upper Neponset River at a cost of 
$90.7 million. 

The "satellite" plants would not only relieve the 
hard-pressed Nut Island treatment facility but the 
reclaimed clean water would also augment badly- 
needed river flow during dry weather periods. 

Other major recommendations provide for 
alleviating combined stormwater-sewage overflows, 
particularly affecting Dorchester Bay and Charles River 
($270 million); expanding primary treatment at the Deer 
Island and Nut Island plants ($92.5 million), upgrading 
the two plants from primary to secondary treatment as 
required by Federal law ($236.7 million) and additional 
sludge disposal facilities for the two upgraded plants 
($28 million). Miscellaneous projects include in- 
terceptor lines, pumping stations and upgrading some 
existing facilities. Upgrading of the Deer Island and 
Nut Island plants from primary to secondary treatment 
would increase removal of organic waste from 30-35% 
to an estimated 85-90%. 

The final report to be submitted in a few months will 
also present conclusions on construction priorities, an 
appropriate management agency for building, 
operating and maintaining wastewater facilities and 
methods of financing construction and operating 
costs. 

More Independent MDC Considered 

Among five management alternatives under con- 
sideration is a proposal for a strengthened, more in- 
dependent MDC to administer a Metropolitan Sewerage 
District (MSD) expanded from 43 communities to 51. 

Construction costs would be financed 75% from 
Federal grants, 15% from state funds and 10% from 
MSD municipalities which must also bear the operating 
expense. User charges at the municipal level will be 



Participants in EMMA Study 

The engineering-management wastewater 
study covers 109 municipalities in the Boston 
Harbor-Eastern Massachusetts Metropolitan Area 
(EMMA), including MDC's 43 cities and towns. 

The MDC's Chief Engineer chairs the 
Technical Subcommittee conducting the study. 
Participants are the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers, U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Metropolitan Area Planning Council and 
the Commonwealth's Division of Water Pollution 
Control, Department of Public Health and Office 
of State Planning. A Citizens Committee serves 
as advisor. Coordination and management are 
provided by MDC's Environmental Planning 
Division. 



required by Federal grants, as well as a method of cost 
recovery from industrial sources. 

A series of meetings for public information and 
input generated considerable interest and some 
controversy. Residents of the Needham-Wellesley- 
Natick-Dover area voiced concern about the site and 
environmental impact of the advanced treatment plant 
on the Charles River. Quincy residents in the vicinity of 
Nut Island expressed fear concerning disruption of 
their neighborhood and possible adverse en- 
vironmental impacts from the recommended upgrading 
and expansion of the harbor plant for secondary 
treatment, which requires filling 26 acres of Quincy 
Bay. 

However, a possibility has arisen for a Federal law 
change requiring only primary treatment for effluent 
discharged in ocean waters. MDC engineers have long 
doubted the need for secondary treatment prior to 
ocean discharge. As an alternative, outer harbor 
outfalls serving Deer Island and Nut Island would be 
extended further into deep water. 

Before the program can be implemented additional 
public meetings will be held and approval will be 
required by the full Metropolitan District Commission 
and Secretary of Environmental Affairs. Other steps 
include funding authorization by U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency and the Legislature and en- 
vironmental assessment or impact statements for each 
of the 50 proposed projects. 

Pending long-range measures anticipated from the 



. . I I 







BOSTON SKYLINE AND HARBOR form a background in this recent aerial photo of Deer Island Sewage Treatment 
Plant. The primary treatment facility alleviating pollution in the harbor consists of (7) administration building and 
laboratory, (2) pumping station, (3) power plant, (4) storage sphere for sewage gas used to operate plant. (5) sludge 
digestion tanks, (6) sludge and scum thickening tanks, (7) sedimentation and settling tanks. (8) chlorine building 
and (9) Winthrop Terminal headworks. Not shown are pumping station to supply cooling water for equipment, water 
storage reservoir and garage. 



EMMA study, MDC is continuing with a number of 
pollution control steps already in progress. Among 
them are sludge disposal facilities, harbor tidegate 
rehabilitation, new sewer interceptor pipelines to 
enlarge the system's capacity, major sewerage con- 
duits and treatment on the Charles River estuary, a new 
Charles River Dam, jointly undertaken by MDC and 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and consideration of 
several innovative techniques on the Charles. 

An important Boston Harbor program — 
rehabilitation of defective tidegates to alleviate harbor 
pollution and prevent salt water intrusion into the 
sewerage system — has been virtually completed. The 
$1.1 million project has already rehabilitated 86 
inoperative tidegates in the Boston main drainage 
system and in Charlestown, with 14 remaining to be 
done in East Boston and Chelsea during the coming 
year. Faulty tidegates have permitted sea water to flow 
into sewers, causing flushing of sewage into the 
harbor on each tide cycle and intrusion of millions of 



gallons of corrosive salt water daily through sewer 
lines leading to the Deer Island treatment plant. A 
substantial reduction of salt water has already im- 
proved plant operation and maintenance and the 
production of methane gas for energy use. 

At Deer Island, arrangements have been made for 
experimenting with a high energy electron irradiation 
method of disinfecting sludge and wastewater. The 
two-year pilot program will be jointly financed by MDC. 
National Science Foundation and the State Division of 
Water Pollution Control. 

Studies of methods to dispose of sludge from the 
primary treatment process at Deer Island and Nut 
Island plants, now discharged at outer harbor outfalls, 
have resulted in the recommendation of an incineration 
method incorporating waste heat recovery to generate 
electric power as the most practical from the viewpoint 
of cost benefit and environmental acceptability. A 
decision awaits review by the Federal Environmental 
Protection Agency. 



On the Charles River, an ongoing improvement 
program is aimed at enhancing enjoyment of passive 
recreation, boating and fishing by producing a visually 
cleaner basin, reduced bacteria and more oxygen. 

Pollutant Overflow Measures Taken 

A major pollution source — overflows of combined 
stormwater and sewage — is being combatted by 
building large-capacity interceptor sewer lines and 
treatment facilities. 

Approximately 20 miles of relief sewers have been 
built on the South Charles, while a key North Charles 
interceptor in Cambridge is in progress at an estimated 
total cost of $16.8 million. The third of a four-phased 
program on on the North Charles was completed in 
1975, with the final stage scheduled to start next year. 
The entire sewer line containing pipes as big as 8 1 /2 
feet in diameter will stretch three miles from Main 
Street to the vicinity of Mt. Auburn Hospital. 

The interceptors on both shorelines were designed 
to enlarge existing capacity carrying wastewater to 
Deer Island and tie in with the four-year-old Cottage 
Farm Stormwater Treatment Station near B.U. Bridge. 

During storms, the Cottage Farm prototype plant 
intercepts and treats overflows of combined sewage 
and stormwater from 26 discharge points on both 
banks of the basin, and five more overflows will be 
linked in the future. The process provides for 
screening, settling and chlorination before discharging 
effluent from holding tanks into the river and the 
disposal of pollutant solids into sewer lines for 
treatment at Deer Island. In 1975 the plant was ac- 
tivated 33 times during storms, 11 of which were en- 
tirely contained by the facility with no discharge to the 
river. A total of 463 million gallons was diverted to the 
station for processing. 

A similar installation will be built in Cambridge as 
an integral facility of the $23 million Charles River 
Marginal Conduit Project aimed at pollution abatement 
in the lower basin. The program will also eliminate 
pollutant overflows in the one-half mile extension of 
the basin between the existing Charles River Dam and 
the new dam, currently under construction near the 
Boston & Maine Railroad station. The beneficial effect 
will be felt, too, in Boston Harbor. 

The first $3.6 million phase scheduled to begin this 
fall provides for an eight-foot-diameter force main to 
discharge treated effluent from the projected station 
into the harbor below the new dam, regardless of tide 
level. Another 18-inch force main will carry screenings 
and sanitary sewage from the station to the 
Charlestown interceptor for treatment at Deer Island. 

The storm detention and treatment plant is planned 
as the second phase, slated for a construction start in 
1976. This will be followed by the final stage consisting 



Crackdown on Illegal Dumping 
Nets $100,000 Sewerage Income 

A crackdown on illegal use of the MDC 
sewerage system for disposing of septic tank and 
cesspool waste originating outside the Sewerage 
District has netted an annual income of $100,000. 

Investigation of "outlaw" dumping by disposal 
firms resulted in temporary agreements with 10 
non-member communities for compensation 
based on per capita charges for non-sewered 
population within the municipalities. Several 
other contracts are being negotiated. The 
arrangement runs through 1979 to allow sufficient 
time for the communities to reach a permanent 
solution for disposal of local septage sewage. 



of large interceptor sewers for diverting overflows from 
Boston, Cambridge and Somerville marginal conduits 
to the treatment plant. Federal financing will cover 
75% of the cost, the state 15% and the Sewerage 
District 10%. 

New Charles River Dam 

When the new Charles River Dam is completed by 
1978, it will greatly reduce the serious pollutant effects 
of salt water intrusion into the basin which now flows 
through the existing dam and boat lock built in 1908. 
The saline layer, devoid of oxygen and highly polluted, 
remains in stratified form, preventing vertical mixing 
and aeration and stifling fish and plant life. Plans are 
underway to remove the accumulated stagnant layer on 
the basin bottom. 

The new dam incorporates six large pumps for flood 
control, three locks for commercial and pleasure craft, 
a fish ladder for access of anadromous fish to the river 
and accommodations for a police boat patrol. The $41 
million project is being built by U.S. Corps of 
Engineers in cooperation with MDC, which contributes 
$8.7 million of the cost. 

Innovative instream methods of river cleanup are 
also being tested or under evaluation, including the 
Storrow Lagoon pilot plant utilizing a chemical 
technique for removal of color and pollution and an 
aeration experiment for localized treatment. 

Further improvement is anticipated from projected 
treatment facilities at a half-dozen locations on the 
upper Charles beyond MDC jurisdiction. 

Three large-scale sewerage projects totaling $11.8 
million are in the design stage. They are (1) expansion 
of the Reading pumping station and increasing the 





OVERFLOWS OF COMBINED STORMWATER AND SEWAGE are a major target of pollution control measures for 
the Charles River Basin. Among them are a massively-equipped storm detention and chlorination station in 
Cambridge above B.U. Bridge and this typical 8-foot diameter sewer pipe used in the ongoing interceptor line 
program to enlarge the sewerage system's capacity. A second detention-chlorination station is scheduled for the 
lower basin. 



capacity of sewer lines serving Reading and Wakefield 
by 14 million gallons per day (mgd) at a cost of $3 
million; (2) a relief sewer accommodating 2.5 mgd 
additional flow to relieve an overloaded line serving 
sections of Brookline, Newton and West Roxbury, $5.4 
million; (3) enlarging sewer line capacity under 
Weymouth-Fore River for projected peak flows up to 63 
mgd from South Shore communities, $3.4 million. At 
the latter location, a $602,500 dredging project was 
completed this year to deepen the channel over an 
existing 48-inch sewerage line siphon for ac- 
commodating larger shipping vessels, as required by 
Federal regulations. 

An industrial waste survey program initiated in 1974 
to determine adherence to MDC and Federal 
requirements is still in progress. Of 518 inspections in 
a pilot area, 28 industries were found to be in violation 
of MDC rules and are presently pre-treating, im- 
plementing pre-treatment and/or modifying their 
systems to comply with standards. 

Flood control work in progress, in addition to the 
new Charles River Dam, is highlighted by a $5.6 million 
pumping station at Amelia Earhart Dam scheduled for 
completion in 1976. The installation is designed to 
enlarge the dam's limited capacity to cope with major 
storms, especially during high tides. A fish ladder has 
been incorporated to facilitate passage of anadromous 



fish to the river upstream from the dam. 

A $417,000 pumping station has been substantially 
completed on Broad Sound Avenue, Revere, the scene 
of heavy damage in recent years from a combination of 
storms and high tides. 

In Quincy, an $827,000 project for dredging Black's 
Creek off Quincy Shore Drive and flood control culvert 
work affecting Furnace Brook Parkway and Southern 
Artery areas is in its final stages. Benefits will include 
improved boating when the work is finished next 
spring. 

Within a few months, a $1.1 million uplift will be 
started on historic Mother Brook, the first canal dug in 
America by English settlers in 1640. designed 
originally to provide industrial power by water diver- 
sion into Mill Creek from the Charles River. The im- 
provements will be made in Boston and Dedham along 
a 1 1 /2-mile stretch of the 3 1 /2-mile waterway, which 
empties into Neponset River, primarily for protecting 
built-up areas from flood damage and developing 
passive recreation, such as walkways, fishing and 
boating. Various contracts will provide for general 
cleanup, restoration of two ponds, dredging a portion 
of the brook, reconstruction of two bridges and repairs 
to three dams. In preparation for the development, 
nearly 21 acres of shoreline property have been 
acquired since 1969. 



Huge Tunnel Expands Water Distribution System 



The huge $19 million Dorchester Tunnel was ac- 
tivated in November as the largest expansion of the 
Metropolitan Water District's distribution system in 13 
years. 

The 10-foot diameter tunnel extending 6 1/3 miles 
from Chestnut Hill at the Brighton-Brookline line to 
Dorchester Lower Mills was designed to meet growing 
needs and boost water pressure for 700,000 present 
consumers in the Southern High and Extra High 
Service systems. Its capacity of 300 million gallons per 
day (mgd) supplements existing pipeline capacity of 
105 mgd for a large area of Boston and" Brookline and 
for Quincy, Milton, Canton and Norwood. 

Completion of the facility also clears the way for a 
$17 million link to augment local water supply for six 
potential members south of Boston. Field work and 
design are well underway on facilities to serve Avon, 
Braintree, Holbrook, Randolph, Stoughton and 
Weymouth and provide an additional supply for 
Canton, presently a partial user member. Studies have 
indicated these communities will require a sup- 
plementary source within five to 15 years. Demand by 
the year 2000 is expected to average 27 mgd with a 
maximum of 56 mgd. 

A construction start on the extension project is now 
scheduled for 1977 involving 15 miles of new water 
mains ranging from 18 to 48 inches and a pumping 
station in the Randolph section of Blue Hills Reser- 
vation, with the Blue Hills Reservoir serving as a major 
distribution facility. Target date for completion has 
been set for 1980. The water system extension was 
authorized by 1974 funding legislation. 

District Expanding North of Boston 

North of Boston, a $1.4 million pipeline was 
completed, linking Woburn, a new district member, 
with Spot Pond Reservoir. The project was designed 
with sufficient capacity for eventual extensions to 
Reading and North Reading and also to supplement 
existing distribution lines serving Stoneham and 
Wakefield, both present members of the Water District. 

Service to Woburn has been delayed until 1977 by 
complications in providing pumping facilities which 
arose when bids exceeded available funds for a new 
station on the reservoir's westerly shore off the 
Fellsway. Another factor was a $1.5 million fire which 
ravaged the Spot Pond station in January, requiring 
extensive reconstruction. It was then decided to 
abandon the proposed Fellsway site and instead build 
a one-mile connection to the Spot Pond pumping 
station and combine the new and old facilities. 
Although the blaze knocked out pumps at Spot Pond, 



Water Purity, Recreation 
In Conflict at Reservoirs 

The never-ending conflict between 
safeguarding purity of drinking water and 
recreational encroachment on reservoirs clashed 
head-on as the 1975 summer season approached. 

Flagrant violations involving waste matter 
from people and pets, litter and trash and even 
swimming culminated in barring the public from 
eight distribution reservoir areas, accompanied 
by an outcry from joggers, picnickers and pet 
owners. A vigorous crackdown piled up scores of 
arrests by MDC Police before the problem was 
under control. 

Protests were particularly vehement at 
Chestnut Hill Reservoir where changes are being 
considered to allow limited recreational use of 
nearby grounds, beyond the reservoir fence, 
without adversely affecting water supply. 



alternate provisions and emergency repair work averted 
any serious disruption of service. 

Construction plans in the northern system also call 
for a new distribution pipeline linking Spot pond 
pumping station with the Fells Reservoir, which is 
supplied directly from Quabbin and Wachusett 
reservoirs via the City Tunnel Extension. Utilizing the 
Fells elevation, 100 feet above Spot Pond, will sub- 
stantially reduce pumping costs, particularly in ser- 
vicing the Woburn extension. The combined ex- 
penditure, including fire damage at Spot Pond and 
additional pipelines, is estimated at $12 million. 

Reflecting a trend of steady growth of the Water 
District, Woburn has become the 33rd member, 
followed last year by Wellesley. Both communities are 
designated as partial users, encouraged to rely as 
much as possible on local water sources. 

The two municipalities were among communities 
listed in an inter-agency study of future water demand 
indicating a rise from the current consumption of 313.5 
mgd to 475 mgd by 1990. These projections were based 
on supplementing local sources of 42 communities in 
addition to the 32 district members presently drawing 
MDC water and 10 others beyond the district served 
under special agreements. The latter area extends into 




QUABBIN RESERVOIR, stretching 18 miles in length, provides most of the water District's supply. Its 
surrounding wide-ranging forests, hills and islands retain an unspoiled wilderness setting. 

(Aerial photo by Jack Maley, MDC) 



Central and Western Massachusetts where the town of 
Amherst is also considering an application for supply. 
Under law, MDC must admit to the Water District 
any community within 10 miles of the State House and 
any other municipality within 15 miles which the 
Commission "can reasonably supply." Nine of the 42 
cities and towns are within 10 miles, 23 in the 10-15- 
mile zone and 10 beyond 15 miles with no option other 
than MDC for future supply. 

New Water Supply Sources Sought 

District growth and continued consumption in 
excess of the system's average safe yield of 300 mgd 
has intensified the urgency for a new supply source in 
the next decade. Water use soared to 321 mgd in 1971 
— a record high — and has since diminished gradually 
to 313.5 mgd in 1975. Reversal of an upward trend in 
consumption was attributed to lessened summertime 
demand induced by four successive wet years. 

For meeting short-range needs, preparations have 
been made to flood-skim about 1% of the excess 
freshet flow of the Connecticut River under en- 
vironmentally-related restrictions to feed into the 
district's principal source at Quabbin Reservoir. 

The diversion would bolster MDC's annual supply 
by an average of 72 mgd — nearly 25% of the current 
safe yield. The plan calls for a 10-mile aqueduct bet- 
ween Quabbin and the Northfield Mt. pumped storage 



reservoir built by Northeast Utilities for hydro-electric 
power production. Implementing the diversion has 
been delayed by negotiations with Northeast Utilities 
on provisions for utilizing the facilities. 

Meanwhile, nature has provided some leeway in 
augmenting the supply for Quabbin, which has been 
below capacity since 1961 — the beginning of a six- 
year drought plunging the 39-square-mile reservoir to 
45% of capacity in 1967. Above-normal precipitation in 
four successive years has nearly refilled the reservoir, 
with a good prospect of 100% elevation in 1976. 
Precipitation was 10.3 inches in excess of the 45.3-inch 
annual average in 1972, 7.5 inches above average in 
1973, 1.8 inches in 1974 and 13.7 inches in 1975. 
Precipitation had been below average for nine of the 12 
years preceding 1972. 

Long-Range Study Continuing 

Despite the current favorable outlook, engineers 
remain apprehensive about maintaining Quabbin at 
capacity during an extended period of normal or sub- 
normal rainfall. 

In another approach to water supply solutions, a 
comprehensive study looking ahead at least 50 years is 
continuing. The program is being conducted by the 
Metropolitan Water Supply Development Committee, 
coordinated by MDC and including representatives of 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, State Department of 



Restoration Set for Church 
That Refused to Fade A way 

The church that refused to die has been given 
a new lease on life. 

Restoration to the status of a "safe ruin" will 
begin next year on the lovely old stone edifice on 
the shore of Wachusett Reservoir in West 
Boylston at a cost of approximately $87,000. 

No mortal hand had dared to raze the near - 
century-old former Baptist church since it was 
acquired in 1902 among property takings for the 
reservoir. Public protest saved the edifice when it 
was threatened with demolition as a safety 
hazard. It survived even after two walls and the 
roof collapsed last year into the rubble of its 
remains. Townspeople fighting for its existence 
succeeded in having the structure designated as a 
national historic landmark in 1973. 

Fund-raising has begun by the West Boylston 
Historical Commission to finance various 
finishing touches. And the old stone church is 
now destined to survive as a symbol of an era that 
once lived where Wachusett now reigns. 



Public Health, State Water Resources Council, 
Metropolitan Area Planning Council and public 
members. 

The study scope embraces distribution facilities, 
methods of upgrading and expanding the sytem, new 
water supply sources and examination of water use, 
with emphasis on reducing waste and developing 
conservation techniques. 

Tentative preliminary findings have been submitted 
on an intensive study of the upper Sudbury River 
watershed to determine potential supply from the 75 
square mile area by flood-skimming and treating 
freshet flows. MDC's Sudbury Reservoir presently 
draws from a 22 square mile area. 

The first phase report, subject to confirmation in a 
more detailed second phase study, has indicated 
proposed watershed management can yield a range of 
29.4 mgd to 76.7 mgd without adversely affecting the 
environment, other water supplies presently in the 
watershed or downstream requirements. This quantity 
exceeds the present deficit in the system's safe yield. 
Next step is a review of the draft report by all agencies 
involved and further public input, prior to final con- 
clusions. 

A second report has produced detailed data on 
water usage by domestic, industrial, commercial and 
public consumers to discover significant deviations as 
a key to potential conservation. 







LEAVITT STEAM PUMPING ENGINE at Chestnut 
Hill Pumping Station is the first equipment designated 
as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Land- 
mark. Installed in 1894 and retired in 1928, the engine 
is regarded by Smithsonian Institution as an out- 
standing example of steam engineering. 

Although per capita domestic water use was found 
to be about equal to the national average, the report 
suggested several conservation methods. Citing 
significant leakage loss in municipal distribution 
systems, the report recommended that MDC encourage 
communities to initiate detection and repair programs. 
Several municipalities have already begun detection 
studies and corrective measures. Among other con- 
servation proposals were a public education campaign, 
replacement of old water-wasting appliances, fixtures 
and plumbing, efficient use and reuse of industrial 
water and more prudent public use such as sewer 
flushing, street sweeping and flushing of mains. 

MDC had already filed legislation last year to aid 
district members in locating sources of water loss and 
financial assistance for remedial construction. Another 
legislative proposal sought authority to establish 
regulations on water use and to require repeal of 
discounts for quantity use. Both measures are still 
pending. A trend has been noted in the Water District 
toward use of flat rates to encourage conservation. One 
community has boosted charges as volume increases 
as a disincentive to excessive use. 

Lead Control, Fluoridation Set 

Corrective action is being taken on the problem of 
corrosion in outmoded lead pipes still in use by homes 
in some older neighborhoods. A facility for injecting a 



10 















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RECREATION AND WILDLIFE REFUGE are among 
resources at Quabbin Reservoir. Wide range of wildlife 
includes bobcat and bald eagle, while fishing and 
picnics in unspoiled, natural environment are popular. 

(Photos by Jack- Swedberg) 



zinc compound to offset the corrosive effect of MDC's 
water on lead pipes will be completed in Southboro 
next May. Action was taken following sampling in 
Boston, Somerville and Cambridge households in- 
dicating lead content of drinking water in excess of 
Federal standards and an association with the amount 
of lead in the blood stream of occupants. The U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency reported, however, 
that the problem was not with MDC water, described as 
"one of the finest serving an urban area anywhere in the 
country," but in local municipal delivery systems and 
plumbing in individual homes. Installation and 
equipment will cost $65,000 and annual chemical 
expense about $35,000. 

A construction start on a $1 million fluoridation 
plant is scheduled for next year, with activation due in 
1977. Anti-corrosion and fluoridation will be combined 
at the Southboro shaft linked with the tunnel system 
carrying water to the district from Quabbin and 
Wachusett reservoirs. Fluoridation is expected to save 
$7 million annually for persons under the age of 20 by 
reducing tooth decay, according to an estimate by 
Massachusetts Dental Society. Its use on a district- 
wide basis will provide savings, too, for member 
communities which are planning or already have in- 
stalled local fluoridation systems. 

In a major improvement at Chestnut Hill pumping 
station, two gas turbine pumping units were activated 
at a cost of $51 1 ,000 replacing steam-driven equipment 
dating back to 1911. The gas turbines being used for 
the first time in the MDC system will reduce main- 
tenance cost, occupy far less space and provide more 
flexibility in the high pressure system. 

For the second year, new legislation allowed the 




Water District to operate on a pay-as-you-go basis, 
replacing the costly long-term financing of annual 
deficits as provided by law since 1945. 

In the first-year adjustment for 1974. the $120 rate 
per million gallons set by legislation in 1962 rose to 
$200 in order to equalize receipts with the cost of debt 
and operation. For 1975, the rate was set at $240 but 
projections indicated that the charge to cities and 
towns would stabilize next year at this level. The latest 
increase was attributed to the inflation spiral, ad- 
ditional debt expense and transfer of Engineering 
Division costs from construction bond funds to an 
annual appropriation, as mandated by legislation. 

Now that deficit borrowing has been ended, it is 
anticipated that the new pay-as-you-go policy will level 
off and eventually decrease the system's outstanding 
debt of $137.7 million. A total of $109.8 million has 
been borrowed to cover deficits since 1945 of which 
$60.2 million is still outstanding. 



11 



arks District On Verge Of Large-Scale Expansion 



MDC is on the threshold of a massive expansion of 
recreation facilities and a widespread uplift of the 
parks system to provide a variety of opportunities for 
leisure-time enjoyment and athletic activity. 

A construction start is planned in 1976 for the first 
stage of a diversified Metropolitan Arena and 
Recreation Center incorporating a much-needed indoor 
schoolboy track, creation of a new Mystic River park 
and the first of four pavilions in a year-round African 
Zoo, designed to revitalize Franklin Park Zoo. 

Significant improvements have started on MDC's 
harbor islands in conjunction with an inter-agency 
program for establishing a Boston Harbor Islands Park. 
Already underway are multi-phased projects for a major 
facelift and development of Stony Brook and Wollaston 
Beach reservations. A half-dozen smaller park 
developments were completed or well advanced during 
the year. 

Recreation programs in the parks system were 
broadened considerably, particularly canoeing, cross- 
country skiing, sailing and nature centers. 

Track Highlights Big Recreation Complex 

The long-awaited indoor schoolboy track serving 
the Parks District has entered its final design stage as 
the centerpiece of a $7 million diversified Metropolitan 
Arena and Recreation Center on the Neponset River 
shoreline in Dorchester, near Southeast Expressway. 

Described as MDC's largest and most varied 
recreation complex, the project is scheduled for 
completion of the first phase in the fall of 1977. Initial 
stage of the 45-acre development provides for a 5000- 
seat, multi-use indoor track structure and a 2000-seat 
ice-skating forum, linked by a core service building. 
Exterior work includes six lighted basketball courts, 
landscaping, roadways, lighting and parking. 

The sprawling 74,250 square foot track structure will 
accommodate a complete range of competitive track 
events and also basketball, tennis, volley ball, bad- 
minton and handball. For off-season activity, the ice 
forum is designed for conversion into three tennis 
courts. The central core building houses locker rooms, 
concessions and rooms for exercise equipment, skate 
sharpening and community gatherings. 

Rounding out the complex, the second construction 
phase, presently under design development, provides 
for lighted tennis courts and other outdoor activities, 
such as softball, soccer, bicycle paths, picnic areas, 
fishing piers, pleasure boat-launching ramp and 
various riverside improvements. 

The indoor track project culminates 10 years of 
delays caused by problems at the original Cleveland 
Circle location in Brighton, alternate site selection, 



land acquisition, financing and design work. Mean- 
while, loss of various facilities has dealt a setback to 
schoolboy track — a pressing need now on the verge of 
fulfillment. 

Mystic River Park Underway in 1976 

Construction will begin early in 1976 on a $3.2 
million first phase of an exciting new park reservation 
on the Mystic River Basin shoreline in Medford and 
Somerville, near Route 93 expressway, the Fellsway 
and Mystic Valley Parkway. 

The proposed Mystic River Park, ultimately costing 
$7 million, will transform an estuary wasteland into a 
200-acre panorama of park, marine and recreation 
facilities. The site borders a 525-acre fresh water basin 
converted from unsightly, odorous salt water tidal flats 
by the Amelia Earhart Dam in 1966. 

The first of two phases on the Medford shoreline 
extends from the MBTA bridge near Earhart Dam to the 
Fellsway and then along Mystic Valley Parkway to the 
Hormel Stadium sports complex opposite Route 93. 
This phase includes an additional area on the up-river 
side of the Hormel athletic complex and another 
stretch on the Somerville riverfront between the MBTA 
bridge and the Fellsway. 

The 100-acre initial project features 70 acres of 
passive parkland, an island wildlife sactuary, a wetland 
wildlife conservation area and planting of thousands of 
trees and shrubs. Facilities will include two fishing 
piers, a boat landing, bicycle and foot paths, picnic 
tables, a lookout tower and parking. The segment on 
the up-river site adjacent to the Hormel complex will 
contain four tennis courts, Little League and soccer 
fields and a site for an historic house, supplementing 
existing Little League and rugby fields. 

The marine concept is aimed at encouraging large 
power boats to use the outer basin near Earhart Dam, 
presently the site of two yacht clubs, and the inner 
basin for sailing, rowboats, canoes and small power 
craft. An MDC sailing pavilion and dock within the 
inner basin was completed last year on the Somerville 
shore, near Route 93, along with a new park. 

A major undertaking in the first phase is an ex- 
tensive soil restoration program dealing with salt-laden 
slit from previous dredging and from shifting the river 
course for Route 93 construction. 

Emphasis in the second phase will be parkland 
development of the west shore of the Maiden River 
from its confluence with the Mystic, including a boat 
launch and extension of the phase one bicycle and foot 
paths. Plans also call for a park and fishing pier in a 
small peninsula alongside Route 93 in Somerville, near 
Lawrence Bridge. 



12 




INDOOR HIGH SCHOOL TRACK, as shown in artist's conception, is the conterpiece of the projected Metropolitan 
Arena and Recreation Center on Neponset River in Dorchester. The multi-use track structure is at left and an ice- 
skating forum at right, linked by a core service building. 

Harbor Islands Park Development 

A milestone in the development of a Boston Harbor 
Islands Park was shared by MDC's Georges and 
Lovell's islands in a first-phase improvement program 
celebrated by week-long events during the 1975 
summer season. 

New facilities and activities were inaugurated in a 
joint undertaking with the Department of En- 
vironmental Management (DEM), spearheaded by the 
Executive Office of Environmental Affairs. 

A highlight was a free seasonal "water taxi" service 
linking Georges with nearby Lovell's and DEM's 
Gallops Island to provide easy public access to newly- 
developed recreational opportunities. The week's 
program also featured free boat trips from Boston to 
Georges furnished to community groups by two 
commercial lines, guided tours and nature walks. For 
many visitors this was an introduction to the natural 
beauty, recreational resources and the great potential 
of 30 harbor islands which the state is seeking to 
develop. 

At Lovell's, MDC provided dock repairs, beach 
improvement, lifeguard protection, picnic facilities, 
camp sites, a guided interpretive tour and removal or 
fencing of safety hazards. Gallops was designated for 
day use, with a new pier, docking floats, family picnic 
areas, interpretive trails and beach areas. 

The lure of harbor islands has been amply 
demonstrated by a continuing growth spiral of visitors 
drawn to Georges Island by its scenic appeal and 
historic Fort Warren. Police estimated attendance at 
184,000, nearly 25,000 above 1974, including 528 group 
permits covering almost 25% of the visitors. A new 
attraction was an audio-interpretive system utilizing 
wireless headsets to relate the fort's role in defending 
the harbor in all American wars and its use as a Civil 
War prison for Confederate civil and military personnel. 
Visitors also enjoyed picnic areas, docking facilities 



and indoor and outdoor outing accommodations 
supervised by Metropolitan District Police and Parks 
and Recreation personnel. Transportation was fur- 
nished by three harbor cruise boat lines and private 
craft. 

Nearby Lovell's Island drew an estimated 45,000. 
while Peddocks Island, off the Hull shore, was visited 
by 1450. Peddocks, acquired in 1970, is available only 
on a permit basis, mostly for camping and picnics, 
pending development of public facilities. 

Another harbor-oriented project is underway at 
Stodders Neck in Hingham, a 22-acre peninsula on 
Weymouth Back River, acquired in 1972. A $220. 00C 
contract developing a passive recreation concept calls 
for walking paths, picnic areas, parking, landscaping, 
boat landing and a promontory offering a spectacular 
view of Hingham and Quincy bays and Boston Harbor. 

Uplift for Stony Brook Reservation 

A $3 million facelift and development program has 
begun at the 470-acre Stony Brook Reservation in the 
heavily-populated West Roxbury-Hyde Park section of 
Boston. 

A wide variety of athletic, park and passive 
recreation facilities is being installed, highlighted by a 
specially-designed area for the handicapped and 
another for elderly people. 

The first phase has been substantially completed in 
the Turtle Pond section at a cost of $310,000. including 
two fishing piers, picnic grounds, improvement and 
expansion of the hiking and bicycle path system, two 
parking areas, planting of 480 trees and changes at the 
Dedham Street-Turtle Pond Parkway intersection. 

Work on the next phase will be underway in the 
spring of 1976 on two contracts totaling $1.7 million, 
providing for rehabilitation and new "facilities at the 
adjoining Kelly and Gelewitz fields as well as the 



13 




PEQUASSETPARK has been completed on a former 
dump site on the Charles River shoreline in Watertown. 
The 4V2-acre pocket park is an example of the ongoing 
program for reclaiming and beautifying the riverfront. 

(Watertown Press photo by Martin Gavin) 

Factory Hill playground. The Kelly fieldhouse is slated 
for enlargement and major repairs and the softball and 
baseball fields will be rebuilt and equipped with new 
bleachers and an irrigation system. An overlook park 
has been designed for the elderly as a viewing area, 
equipped with benches and game tables. Walkways, 
play equipment, benches and lighting will dress up 
Factory Hill playground. A new River Street athletic 
field and bleachers are also specified. 

In succeeding phases, construction of the John F. 
Thompson Center for the Handicapped and a park 
maintenance structure are planned. The Thompson 
facility will consist of a central building, nature trails 
with descriptive environmental exhibits in Braille, play 
and picnic areas and an outdoor classroom. 

A $1 million grant by the U.S. Department of In- 
terior's Bureau of Outdoor Recreation is anticipated for 
the Stony Brook development.. 

Major restoration of natural environment and other 
improvements are proceeding toward completion 
during the summer of 1976 at the nearby five-acre park 
embracing Francis D. Martini Music Shell on Truman 
Highway, Hyde Park. The $176,000 project provides for 
enlarged stage capacity, floodlighting and a natural 
grass amphitheater to replace concrete seating and 
blacktop surfacing. A further natural restoration will 
come from reclaiming one-half of a 100-car parking 
area and extensive planting of trees and shrubs. Other 
improvements include relocation of two lighted tennis 
courts and a lighted basketball court, a new picnic area 
and lighting standards. A $90,950 reimbursement has 
been granted by the U.S. Bureau of Outdoor 
Recreation. 

A multi-purpose improvement program along 
Quincy Shore Drive is nearing the final phase of a $2.4 
million uplift of the popular Wollaston Beach Reser- 
vation. Initial work completed in 1974 was a $875,000 
culvert-type structure replacing the Sergt. Greenberg 




NEWEST SKATING RINK at waterfront park in 
Boston's North End offers striking harbor views from 

large windowwalls. 

(MDC Photo by Jack Maley) 

Bridge at Black's Creek, incorporating tidegates to 
control tidal action and maintain upstream water level. 
Near completion is an $847,000 contract for dredging 
Black's Creek to improve tidal flow and deepen the tidal 
basin for boating and installing a culvert under 
Southern Artery to alleviate flooding. An early start is 
scheduled on a $967,644 project to reconstruct a 3000- 
foot stretch of Shore Drive in the same vicinity, in- 
corporating a median strip, sidewalk, bicycle path, 
pedestrian lights and recreational facilities at Caddy 
Park, known also as Treasure Island. Nearby historic 
Moswetuset Hummock is slated for landscaping, a new 
rustic bridge and other improvements under a separate 
$40,000 contract to be awarded in the fall. 

Parkland Development on Charles 

The Charles River's popular appeal for recreation 
and relaxation has spurred an extensive, continuing 
program of beautification, development and 
acquisition, emphasizing a return of the riverbank to 
parkland. 

An outstanding example was the blossoming of 
Pequasset Park, a 4 1 /2-acre "pocket park" on a former 
shoreline dump site adjacent to the Watertown skating 
rink. The newly-completed $258,343 project contains 
four tennis courts, picnic area, walkways, landscaping 
with 240 trees and shrubs and parking. 

Similarly, the newly-acquired, four-acre Old Mill 
tract in Needham was developed for low-keyed 
recreation along a 675-foot strip of riverbank. The area, 
incorporating Cochrane Dam and renamed Village Falls 
Park, was completed at a cost of $63,089, equipped 
with facilities for walking, picnicking, fishing, canoe 
launching, landscaping and retaining an existing bridle 
path. 

Preliminary planning is in progress for restoration 
of Riverside Park in the Newton-Weston area, featuring 



14 




to by Robert F. George Herald American Photo by Stanley Forman 

CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING AND BICYCLING are fast growing activities in the Parks District. The winter sport has 
great popularity at Blue Hills Reservation and the newly-opened area at Martin Golf Course in Weston. This 
bicycling scene on Memorial Drive is part of a 16-mile bikeway network on both sides of the Charles River, which is 
being expanded to a 25-mile scenic system. 



a revival of canoeing and passive recreation. A three- 
acre tract at a critical location on the Newton shoreline 
facing the Riverside site has been acquired to provide 
the proposed park development with a natural scenic 
background. 

Down-river, work began on a major $256,857 
restoration and upgrading of the Magazine Beach 
recreation area in Cambridge. The beautification 
project stresses extensive landscaping, shade trees, a 
grass and tree-covered overlook of the river, earth 
forms simulating fortifications used in the 
Revolutionary War and removal of a bisecting roadway. 
Other features are installation of drinking fountains, 
picnic tables and play equipment, and reconstruction 
of two existing ball fields. 

On the Brighton shoreline along Soldiers Field 
Road, planning is proceeding for development of 
Herter Park, formerly Metropolitan Boston Arts Center, 
and renovation of the former Institute of Contemporary 
Arts building and the outdoor theater. The facilities will 
be operated by the Christian A. Herter Center, named 
in honor of the late Massachusetts Governor and U.S. 
Secretary of State. The center has been designated for 
environmental, cultural, recreational and educational 
uses. Urban gardening demonstrations and ethnic 
cultural events were among activities during its first 
season in 1975. 

A continuous riverside bikeway from Watertown to 
Boston was completed for recreation-minded and 
commuting bicyclists under a $163,000 contract for 



missing links or improvements on Greenough 
Boulevard, Memorial Drive, Cambridge Parkway and 
across the river to Charles River Dam in Boston. The 
16-mile network presently available will be expanded to 
a 25-mile scenic bikeway system on both sides of the 
Charles. Next phase, scheduled for 1976, will extend 
the Esplanade bikeway one mile along Soldiers Field 
Road, Boston, between B.U. and River Street bridges. 
Two additional projects on the Boston side call for 
improvement of the existing bicycle route from Science 
Museum through the Esplanade to B.U. Bridge and the 
final link from River Street Bridge to Watertown 
Square. 

New recreational opportunities were also developed 
to serve heavily-populated inner-city locations in East 
Boston, Hyde Park and Somerville. 

A $600,000 program for rehabilitation work and 
athletic facilities at Constitution Beach in East Boston 
reached the midway point. The first two phases saw 
the installation of basketball and handball courts, 
benches, floodlighting, a children's play area, 
replacement of paving with green park space and 
miscellaneous improvements. The final stage calls for 
enlarging the skating rink to accommodate dressing 
rooms, shower, multi-use rooms and spectator seating 
and also two tennis courts and extensive landscaping. 

Plans for a new 200-acre Belle Isle Reservation near 
Constitution Beach moved into its first stage with the 
acquisition of the 28-acre, former Suffolk Downs drive- 
in theater. A master plan calls for recreational 



15 



"Cash for Trash", Volunteers 
Help Litter Cleanup Program 

It was "cash for trash" at Nahant Beach this 
season in a unique program that made litter 
literally disappear. 

The inducement was a refund of a 50c parking 
fee when a car occupant returned a ticket stub 
with an MDC plastic bag containing trash. A 
continuation of the system for the 1976 season is 
under review. 

Hundreds of volunteers continued their 
response to spring cleanup drives along beaches, 
rivers and reservations. The sixth annual cleanup 
of debris and litter on the Charles drew 500, 
spearheaded by the Charles River Watershed 
Association. A delegation from the Save Our 
Shores organization and other volunteers 
voyaged to harbor islands for their fourth annual 
anti-litter effort. 

development of this site, balanced by a conservation 
area in the adjoining salt marsh. 

At Dale Street, Hyde Park, a 1 1 /2-acre wooded tract 
is being converted to recreational purposes, including 
two tennis courts, basketball standards, children's 
play area, pathways and lighting under a $136,872 
contract. 

Saxon Foss Park on McGrath Highway, Somerville, 
was given a $71,903 refurbishing by installation of 
basketball standards, improving two tennis courts and 
landscaping. 

Scattered through the park system, 2969 trees and 
shrubs were planted in the fifth year of an aesthetic and 
environmental program, bringing the total plantings to 
nearly 15,000 in parks and along roadways and 
waterways. 

In prospect is a large-scale revitalization of Revere 
Beach and replacing the blighted amusement area with 
an expanded beach reservation. The beachfront park is 
a facet of a major joint redevelopment effort in the 
Revere Beach area involving a parking garage, transit 
extension and a new connector highway, as well as a 
proposed private housing development westerly of 
Ocean Avenue. MDC planners are working actively with 
the developer and government agencies to safeguard 
and enhance public enjoyment of the heavily-used 
recreational asset which was acquired in 1895 as the 
first publicly-owned beach in the country. 

On July 1, MDC is scheduled to take title to Boston 
Arena in one phase of the reorganization of agencies 
under the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, 
which abolishes the Boston Arena Authority. 
Preliminary action has been taken by the City of 
Boston to purchase the facility for a municipal 
schoolboy sports center. 




(Boston Globe photo by Ulrike Welsch) 

SPRING FISHING at Wollaston Beach is enhanced 
by a fine view of the Boston skyline. 



Outdoor Recreation Activity 
Growing in Parks District 



With a vast potential for wholesome recreation, the 
parks system is steadily widening its broad scope of 
activity to meet regional needs and satisfy newly- 
developing public interests. 

In response to growing demand for leisure-time 
outlets, MDC has stimulated a resurgence of canoeing 
and expanded opportunities for sailing, cross-country 
skiing, nature study, tennis and other outdoor 
recreation. 

Cooperative efforts with municipal agencies and 
private organizations have achieved considerable 
success in more intensive use of various parks system 
facilities at minimal management and operating ex- 
pense for MDC. 

Charles River Big Recreation Asset 

As a priceless natural asset in an urban setting, the 
8V2 mile Charles River Basin and its shoreline park 
reservation have increasingly become a magnet for 
millions seeking recreation and relaxation. 

A myriad of open-air activity is available along the 
Charles, ranging from boating of every description to a 
series of playgrounds, athletic fields, tennis courts, 
swimming and wading pools, a summer theater at 
Herter Park, skating rinks, bikeway network and just 
plain sunning and strolling. 

Among riverfront activities, highly-diversified 
performances at Hatch Memorial Shell were a prime 
attraction for the 1975 season, drawing an estimated 



16 




BLUE HILLS RESERVATION offers diverse ac- 
tivities, among which are maple sugaring at Ponkapoag 
Outdoor Center operated by Greater Boston YMCA, 
cross-country skiing and Junior Boys Golf School, 
sponsored by N.E. Golf Association. 



attendance of 389,000 for 33 events. A varied repertoire 
ran the gamut from Boston Symphony's traditional 
Esplanade Pops concerts and a "Bach in the Basin" 
series to eight performances of "Ballet on the 
Esplanade." Highlight of the season was Conductor 
Arthur Fiedler's second annual presentation of 
Tchaikovsky's "1812 Overture" by the Pops Orchestra. 
The spectacular performance was punctuated by firing 
of 105 mm howitzers, amplified bell ringers and nearby 
church bells, climaxed by a privately-sponsored, 
mammoth aerial fireworks display from anchored 
barges. An estimated 125,000 to 150,000 spectators 
were packed along both shorelines and in a flotilla of 
boats, described by some observers as the biggest 
turnout for any event in Boston history. Large crowds 
were entertained also by 60 band concerts at various 
beaches and reservations in the parks system during 
July, August and September. 

In an innovative experiment proposed by People for 
Riverbend Park, MDC rerouted automobile traffic on a 
Sunday in May and opened a 1 1 /2-mile stretch of 
Memorial Drive to enlarge the grassy riverfront area for 
casual enjoyment by 15,000 persons. The carnival 
atmosphere of music, street theater, frisbee tossing 
and picnics was termed a huge success. 

Another big happening on the river — the Head-of- 
the-Charles Regatta — earned a newspaper description 
as the biggest rowing event in the world. In its 10th 
year, the late October competition drew 2577 rowers 
competing in 590 boats, viewed by 60,000 spectators. 

Sailing, Canoeing Activity Growing 

Lending a picturesque flavor to the lower basin, 
MDC's sailing program, established in 1936, continues 
to grow steadily under the auspices of Community 



(Boston Globe photo) 

Boating, Inc. Membership at the self-sustaining facility 
jumped to 6746 senior and junior participants, an 
increase of 1105 over 1974. Enrollment of physical 
education classes rose from 213 to 559 students, 
representing 21 public and private schools and 
colleges. Overnight and daytime harbor trips, a 
rowboat regatta, junior Olympics and varied social 
events were among other activities. 

Boat traffic, predominantly recreational, passing 
through Charles River locks has reached 16.336. 
creating conditions that led to the first redraft of basin 
regulations in 40 years. The updated rules, designed to 
iron out safety and other conflicts between power- 
boats, sailboats and sculls, tightened provisions for 
speed limits, size limitations, sanitation and other 
controls affecting mooring and boating facilities. 

A revival of canoeing on the Charles has accelerated 
remarkably, particularly under the auspices of Lincoln 
Guide Service housed at the MDC Police Riverside sub- 
station in Auburndale. Since its inception here in 1973, 
canoeists have increased from 4000 to 15.069 and the 
rental livery has grown to 60 canoes. The appeal of 
physical fitness, healthy recreation and river ecology 
has attracted school, organization and employee 
groups and even college credit physical education 
programs. Further growth has begun with MDC's 
recent acquisition of Needham YMCA's Redwing Bay 
canoe rental livery, including an acre of riverfront, 
which accommodated 3200 canoeists in the 1975 
season. The facility is being operated under YMCA 
management. Canoe rental was also introduced this 
year at Magazine Beach, Cambridge, where a small- 
scale operation drew about 500. Other locations are 
planned for eventual development in the 30-mile 



17 












Off-Beat Summer Activities 
Developed at Skating Rinks 

There's no end to ingenuity in developing off- 
season activity for summer fun at MDC's skating 
rinks. 

One municipal recreation department has 
introduced jogging to supplement tennis in- 
struction, while another rink was utilized for 
junior and senior box lacrosse. 

Tennis was the biggest sport, utilizing four of 
the 16 rinks converted to vacation use. Other 
activity sponsored by municipalities or 
organizations included day camps, recreation and 
social programs, street hockey, basketball, 
dances and dog shows. 



stretch between Wellesley and the Boston Esplanade. 
The emphasis on greater utilization of MDC waters 
has seen the pioneering sailing program on the Charles 
supplemented by two newer, fast-growing facilities. In 
its second year's operation, sailing in the Mystic River 
Basin has increased from 500 to 2594 participants 
enrolled at the new boathouse and pavilion on the 
Somerville shoreline, designed to accommodate the 
Parks District's northern region. The Pleasure Bay 
sailing program in South Boston, serving the southern 
area, completed its fourth season with an enrollment'of 
1574, mostly youngsters. Sailing instruction included 
special classes for the blind, handicapped and senior 
citizens. The facilities were also used in the athletic 
programs of 12 Boston schools and hosted the 
Massachusetts High School Sailing Championship 
with 35 participating schools and the New England 
Prep Schools Championship with 27 competitors. 

Fishing, Cross-Country Skiing Popular 

Fishing in MDC waters continues on the rise, 
especially at Quabbin Reservoir's three fishing areas 
where 65,725 anglers turned up in 1975, an increase of 
nearly 3000 over the previous season. A new state 
record was set here by a catch of a landlocked salmon 
weighing nine pounds, 11 ounces. On hand for rental 
were 113 aluminum boats and 52 motors. Additionally, 
the MDC water supply system offers fishing op- 
portunities by permit at designated shorelines of 
Wachusett and Sudbury reservoirs. In 1975, permits 
allowing use of either reservoir rose to 6200, nearly 
1000 above the 1974 season. In its second year's 
operation, thousands flocked year-round to the 
recreational fishing pier at the Lynn Harbor mouth of 




MOVING PANORAMA and good catches draw 
anglers to fishing pier at Castle Island, South Boston 
[left]. Scenic and historic attractions at newly- 
developed Boston Harbor Islands Park are shown to 
visitors in guided tour at MDC's Lovells Island. 

Saugus River, MDC's second salt water pier. The other 
is at Castle Island, South Boston. Fresh-water sport- 
smen were drawn also to a dozen ponds in park 
reservations, where stocking and a water improvement 
program have upgraded fishing sites. Five fishing 
derbies attracted 3000 participants. 

The popularity of easily-accessible skiing locations 
has led to further expansion of the winter sport in the 
Parks District. Cross-country skiing was introduced 
this year at the Martin Golf Course in Weston, 
operated by Lincoln Guide Service, offering in- 
struction, lighted touring tracks and supplied by man- 
made snow when necessary. The site near Route 128 
and Massachusetts Turnpike has been described as the 
first strap-hanger's ski touring area, because of its 
proximity to the MBTA Riverside line. Attendance 
reached 5000 during the first season's operation. At 
Ponkapoag Golf Course in Blue Hills Reservation, 
Wilderness Trips accommodated 1000 in its second 
year's activity. Floodlighted night skiing at Blue Hills 
Ski Area, Canton-Milton, accounted for 30% of week - 
day use of lifts among the turnout of 25,000 skiers and 
20,000 attending the ski school. The ski area is fully- 
equipped with artificial snow-making apparatus, a 
double chair lift, two J-bars and two rope lifts. 

A unique feature is being installed at MDC's Leo J. 
Martin Memorial Golf Course in Weston where ground 
has been broken for a golf museum serving also as 
headquarters for the state's major golf organizations. 
The privately-funded building will display mementos of 
the late Francis Ouimet of international fame and 
house the Ouimet Caddie Scholarship Fund, 
Massachusetts Golf Association and Women's Golf 
Association. As a youth Ouimet won the U.S. Open at 
The Country Club, highlighting a brilliant career in 



18 




CHARLES RIVER offers a myriad of open-air ac- 
tivities, including a revival of canoeing, sailing for 
youngsters and adults against a background of Beacon 
Hill and downtown Boston and heavily-attended events 
at Hatch Shell. 

which he twice captured the National Amateur 
Championship and took the Massachusetts Amateur 
title six times. 

At the two 18-hole Ponkapoag courses in Canton, a 
five-day Junior Boys Golf School and Camp was held 
for the second year attended by 65 youngsters, 
sponsored by New England Golf Association and 
housed at Ponkapoag Outdoor Center in Blue Hills 
Reservation. Other major events were the 32nd annual 
New England Junior Golf Championship with 714 
entries, rated as the country's biggest for juniors; the 
36th annual CYO tournament for 691 contestants and 
the fourth annual Massachusetts Public Links Tour- 
nament in conjunction with sectional qualifying rounds 
for U.S.G.A. national competition, with 75 entries. 

Biggest attraction in the parks system is bathing at 
MDC's 17 miles of ocean beaches and four fresh-water 
beaches, drawing an estimated attendance upwards of 
15 million. Nineteen pools used by 415,090 persons 
offered many special programs such as swimming 
instruction for youngsters, for adults at evening 
classes and handicapped and special children, as well 
as swim meets sponsored by high schools and 
municipal recreation departments. Two pools were 
utilized for rehabilitation of patients at the Veterans 
Administration Hospital in West Roxbury and 
Massachusetts General Hospital. 

For the third successive year diminished use of 
skating rinks was noted, with attendance dropping to 






WW - 




1,705,300 from the two million peak for the 1971-72 
season. The reduction primarily affected general 
skating, which has fallen by 260.712 in three years 
despite the addition of five rinks. The figures were 
interpreted as indication that further rink construction 
would be tapered off. Artificial skating facilities will 
reach 26 next season upon completion of a $1,757,000 
rink at a projected waterfront park in Boston's North 
End, providing impressive harbor and park views from 
its large window-walls and a 500-seat capacity. 

A wide range ot skating activity continues, in- 
cluding boys and girls hockey, classes for speed - 
skating, figure-skating, handicapped children and 
school physical education, and skating parties, 
representing an attendance of 950,000. Public skating 
was assigned approximately 48 hours weekly at each 
rink and rental use about 52 hours for a total of 19.347 
rental hours. A variety of special programs were 
conducted by municipal recreation departments. 

A new environmental facility on Chickatawbut Hill 
became the third nature center located in the 5700-acre 
Blue Hills Reservation, all offering stimulating 
education and healthful recreation for classroom 
groups and outdoor enthusiasts. The former Army Nike 
base with a panoramic view of Metropolitan Boston 



19 



and the harbor from a 517-foot elevation ac- 
commodated 3070 participants from school and youth 
groups, as well as conservation and natural history 
workshops for youth leaders. Training seminars were 
also conducted by MDC for park foremen. The center is 
equipped with a cafeteria and dormitory for resident 
programs. At Trailside Museum, attendance rose to 
89,295 from 1974's turnout of 82,389, including free 
admissions for 18,978 in school and other special 
groups from the Parks District. Activity programs were 
highlighted by week-end hikes, guided walks, staff 
lectures and many special events. Construction is 
scheduled to start next year on a $263,000 expansion 
project, consisting of an educational auditorium, 
landscaping and other improvements. Both Trailside 
and Chickatawbut are managed for MDC by 
Massachusetts Audubon Society. 

A highly-productive forestry management and 
conservation activity was introduced by Ponkapoag 
Outdoor Center, another nature-oriented facility in the 
Blue Hills, operated by Greater Boston YMCA. The 
work was performed by 35 resident teenagers from 
across the state and 21 day workers from Boston under 
a Federal grant from Youth Conservation Corps and 
aided by MDC supervision and equipment. In other 
activity, nearly 10,000 participants of all ages took part 
in such programs as year-round camping, educational 
sessions, family week-end and overnight stays, day 
camps, maple sugaring, horseback instruction and 
treks. Ponkapoag is equipped with winterized dor- 
mitory facilities, a crafts building, dining lodge, 
swimming pool and its own riding stable. 

An MDC-sponsored fun and educational program at 
Children's Museum drew 1135 school and community 
groups from the Parks District totaling 30,165 
youngsters, an increase of 2430 over the prior year. 

Live theater was staged at 10 locations in the Parks 
District attended by 5000 children in the 22nd year's 
performance by Boston Children's Theater sponsored 
by MDC. 

MDC's three stadiums were heavily used for 
diversified activity. High schools scheduled 120 
football games, two track meets and two graduations. 
Other events included 17 Gaelic football competitions, 
42 rugby games and seven drum and bugle corps 
competitions. Athletic fields were intensively booked 
for baseball, softball, Little League, soccer and field 
hockey. 

Responding to mounting popularity of tennis, the 
parks system has expanded its courts to 35. Indication 
of public demand was noted at the two new lighted 
courts in Charlesbank Park in Boston's West End, the 
only courts on a reservation basis, where 4500 one- 
hour permits were issued. 

The 50-acre Camp Nihan acquired in 1973 has 
developed into a center for overnight and day camping. 
The Saugus facilities adjacent to Breakheart Reser- 
vation have accommodated 7500 campers, largely Boy 
Scouts and special programs for youngsters. 



Wildlife Education Programs 
Move to Forefront at Zoo 



Development of education programs planned as an 
integral aspect of zoo activity has taken a big step 
forward in preparation for a construction start in 1976 
on the new Franklin Park Zoo. 

The learning functions are being shaped on a pilot 
basis for future expansion at the projected indoor- 
outdoor African wildlife exhibit — centerpiece of an 
innovative 52-acre zoo. 

Personnel of Boston Zoological Society (BZS), 
which manages the zoo for MDC, have already begun 
on-site classes, in-school teaching, teacher training 
and attendance from summer camps and day care 
centers, while devising similar activity for the elderly. 

The zoo became a wildlife education classroom for 
500 fifth and sixth graders from 12 schools in Boston, 
Brookline, Newton, Needham and Walpole, funded by 
a grant from the State Department of Education. A 
Summer "Urban Safari" drew over 1000 Boston 
youngsters to a living classroom. Both programs in- 
troduced young people to the world of animals and 
brought together diverse groups of urban and suburban 
students. And into classrooms and other locations in 
the Parks District went the Zoomobile for 204 ap- 
pearances and the Traveling Zoo for 125 treks during 
the summer vacation. 

Work on the new African Zoo's tropical forest 
pavilion is now scheduled to begin next summer to be 
followed by three other pavilions depicting a bush 
forest, desert and savanna. The pavilion complex will 
enclose 6V2 acres of exhibits, viewing and service 
areas. Outside exhibits and visitor walkways will 
spread over a 20-acre adjoining area, featuring free- 
running, natural settings inhabited by homogeneous 
animal communities separated by hidden moats. 
Service and holding facilities will be housed along the 
perimeter of pavilions, allowing controlled access of 
animals to indoor or outdoor areas. 

Phasing of the new zoo is expected to extend over 
the next four to 10 years at an estimated cost ranging 
up to $24 million, funded by Federal grants, MDC bond 
issues and private sources. BZS has raised $1.1 million 
of its $6 million goal for natural habitat exhibits, 
animals and educational graphics. 

Official opening of the "Bird's World" in September 
was greeted with plaudits and stimulated fresh en- 
thusiasm for the concept of natural settings and 
unobstructed display of animals planned for the 
projected African wildlife exhibit. 

The $2 million project converted a dilapidated aviary 
of 1912 vintage into a completely rebuilt outdoor flight 
cage where an elevated walkway above a jungle gorge 



20 




WILDLIFE EXHIBITS are brought to youngsters at 
Children's Hospital in Boston and a Lynn classroom via 
the Zoomobile of Franklin Park Zoo, as part of the 
Boston Zoological Society's wildlife education 
program. 





r 



m 




(Lynn Item photo by Bob Crosby) 



brings people and birds together amid trees, plants, 
waterfalls and waterways. The aviary extends into an 
adjoining three-level system of pools and natural 
waterfalls offering a variety of habitats for ducks, 
geese and exotic species. 

The adjacent birdhouse inside a reconstructed 
building contains displays of bird collections in five 
open-fronted natural environments of swamps, rain 
forest, mountain-side, desert and riverbank. Mini 
exhibits explaining living habits of birdlife, displays of 
native New England birds outside the birdhouse and 
classroom space are providing a broad educational 
experience for school groups as well as the public. 

This was the first major joint development between 
MDC and BZS since the organization assumed 
management of MDC zoos in 1970. The group also 
operates the Children's Zoo at Franklin Park and Walter 
D. Stone Zoo in Stoneham. 

At the Children's Zoo, which brings youngsters and 
small animals together for bottle feeding and other 
close contact, a large swamp exhibit has been added 
and other major exhibit changes are being developed 
for 1976. 

Zoo facilities and grounds have been the scene of 
varied activities, ranging from square dancing tied in 
with the barnyard animal exhibit to a pocket mime 
theatre performance and an arts and crafts workshop. 
Summerthing Jamboree and birthday parties for 
youngsters at the Children's Zoo. Franklin Park was 
also a participant in a low-cost museum loop shuttle 



bus linking seven cultural institutions. 

Development of a six-member hospital staff and 
volunteer assistance by medical professionals has 
provided resources for an intensive preventive 
medicine program for the entire collection of 1269 
speciments, continuous training of in-nouse staff and 
treatment of 200 ill or injured animals requiring 
hospitalization. Research in several areas has been 
carried on in the zoo's biomedical center. 

Acquisition of animals continues to emphasize 
breeding groups of pairs and rare and endangered 
species to protect them from extinction. 

Exhibit improvement is receiving much attention at 
the Stone Zoo in Stoneham. The waterfowl area has 
been enlarged by removing black top paving and 
changes at the sea lion exhibit are encouraging 
breeding activity by providing a proper place for the 
females to whelp. At the aviary, a seashore exhibit was 
built and landscaped and the penguin exhibit was 
refurbished. 

Still in prospect is a plan for charging admission at 
Franklin Park and Stone zoos, which BZS regards as 
critical for upgrading staffing, expediting im- 
provements and meeting operating expenses. Zoo 
officials believe this would also increase control and 
reduce vandalism. Under a legislative authorization 
applying to Franklin Park, the zoo would be open free 
of charge "for a reasonable period" each day and there 
would be no charge for scheduled school groups from 
the MDC Parks District. 



21 



Historic Sites Embellished 
For Bicentennial Visitors 



The Bicentennial celebration has stimulated 
considerable activity on improving the parks system's 
historic sites in preparation for an influx of visitors. 

A major uplift was given to Bunker Hill Battlefield 
and Monument through joint efforts of MDC and U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers. The Corps traces its 200-year 
origin to construction of fortifications for the 
momentous battle of June 17, 1775. 

An extensive improvement and refurbishing 
program was completed at the monument, the lodge, 
exhibits and grounds. At each of four entrance gates, 
commemorative tablets were installed honoring the 
battle roles of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and 
Connecticut forces and by Colonel Richard Gridley, 
first chief of engineers of the Colonial Army. These 
were fashioned from the same type of Quincy granite 
that went into the monument. 

Observance of the battle's 200th anniversary was 
marked by special events highlighted by a large-scale 
reenactment of the historic encounter. During the 
month of June, 11,547 visitors thronged the 
Charlestown site, pushing total attendance for the year 
to 64,440. A special attraction was an electronic 
system describing the battle through wireless headsets 
in simulated voices of Colonial and British officers, 
installed and operated by a private organization. 

The monument, park and four surrounding streets 
are destined to become part of the proposed Boston 
National Historical Park, possibly next year. Transfer 
of the property to National Park Service has been 
approved by the Commission and authorized by 
Federal and State legislation. 

An electronic system similar to Bunker Hill's was 
activated for Fort Warren on Georges Island, relating 
its role in defending the harbor in American wars and 
as a Civil War prison for Confederate civil and military 
personnel. A $593,000 reconstruction job on the island 
seawall and old gun emplacements was completed, 
utilizing an unusual technique of transporting cement 
from the mainland by helicopter. 

At Castle Island in South Boston, designs were 
finalized for the first phase of restoring Fort In- 
dependence, where fortifications were first erected in 
1634 and rebuilt at least four times. One of the forts 
was designed by Paul Revere in 1778 after destruction 
by the British upon their evacuation of Boston in 1776. 
Revere was commissioned a lieutenant colonel later 
and commanded the fort. Restoration work is expected 
to start by the spring of 1976, but the fort's opening to 
the public may be delayed until 1977. 

Electrical work and other interior improvements are 
scheduled at the Quincy Homestead in Quincy, 
supplementing a newly-completed structural, exterior 




HISTORIC FORT INDEPENDENCE at Castle Island, 
South Boston, is scheduled in 1976 for a major 
restoration project. The adjoining area contains a 
harbor-side park, walkway, picnic tables, Pleasure 
Bay's sailing pavilion and beach and a fishing pier 
shown at right of photo. 

and landscaping program. The Homestead and its 
handsome furnishings of two centuries was the 
childhood home of Dorothy Quincy who married John 
Hancock in 1775. Constructed in the 1680's and 
enlarged in the early 18th century, the premises have 
been furnished and administered by the National 
Society of Colonial Dames. 

Another significant restoration project will be 
underway this fall at Moswetuset Hummock, off 
Quincy Shore Drive, home ground of the Indian tribe 
from which Massachusetts derived its name. 

The site of the first Colonial powder magazines and 
military training field has been embellished by land- 
scaping and restoration of the Magazine Beach 
recreation area in Cambridge. 

Cost appraisals have been made for the important 
acquisition of the historic 179-acre Sawmill Brook 
Valley area in West Roxbury's Charles River corridor 
under a fund authorization for conservation and park 
purposes. This is the scene of Brook Farm, a social 
experiment in the 1840's by a small commune of 
Transcendentalists. Adjoining the tract is Pulpit Rock, 
where Rev. John Elliot brought Christian teachings to 
native Indians in the mid-17th century as "The Apostle 
to the Indians." Both sites are registered as National 
Historic Landmarks. 

Appraisals have also been completed to acquire and 
restore the site of the old Incline and Granite Railways 
in Quincy, the nation's first commercial rail line, which 
transported granite for Bunker Hill Monument to the 
Neponset River for shipment to Charlestown. 

Considerable interest in the archaeological 
potential of many sites on MDC property has led to 
adoption of regulations governing professional ar- 
chaeologists. Among these areas are the Charles, 
Mystic and Neponset river basins, harbor islands and 
Ponkapoag and Green Hill in Blue Hills Reservation. 



22 




SCENIC PARKWAY FEATURES are preserved by 
Memorial Drive in Cambridge [left] and Soldiers Field 
Road in Boston, while carrying heavy traffic along the 
Charles River. (MDC photos by Officer Willard Hardigan) 



tinned 




Proper maintenance and police patrol of MDC's 168 
miles of roadways are vital to the area's motoring and 
commuting public, for they comprise many of the main 
routes within Route 128. Metropolitan District Police 
also patrol 18 miles of the Northeast Expressway, 
Central Artery and Southeast Expressway. 

Significant progress has been made during the year 
toward upgrading the roadway system and paving the 
way for long-needed bridge reconstruction. 

Finishing touches were completed on a $645,278 
resurfacing and reconstruction project on a two-mile 
stretch of Storrow Drive and Soldiers Field Road in 
Boston, including median strip improvements. On a 
3000-foot section of Quincy Shore Drive a $967,644 
contract was awarded for reconstruction work, a 
median strip, sidewalk, bicycle path, pedestrian lights 
and other improvements. Two other contracts were 
completed for resurfacing and reconstruction work in 
various locations at a cost of $891,889. 

Three heavily-traveled overpasses at Forest Hills. 
Memorial Drive and Storrow Drive received a $243,000 
repair job and $312,655 was spent on a repair and 
replacement program for guard rails, chain-link and 
steel picket fences on roadways. 

Through a cooperative effort with the State 
Department of Public Works (DPW), substantial 
Federal funds will be tapped for vitally-needed bridge 
replacement and other projects. 

Following conclusion of design work, it is an- 
ticipated that DPW will replace Wellington Bridge 
carrying Route 28-Fellsway traffic spanning Mystic 




River and Harvard Bridge over Charles River. Other 
large structures requiring replacement or major work 
are General Lawrence Bridge over Mystic River on 
Veterans Memorial Parkway, Medford; two railroad 
bridges on Alewife Brook Parkway in Cambridge. 
Dorchester Bay Bridge on Morrissey Boulevard and a 
McGrath Highway bridge in Somerville. Some of these 
structures were built for use by pleasure vehicles and 
suffered from overloading later when they were pressed 
into service for general traffic and trucking in excess of 
design capacity. 

Another joint project with DPW. aided by Federal 
funding, was substantially completed in a focal area of 
Morrissey Boulevard, the gateway to the new 
University of Massachusetts-Boston campus in 
Dorchester. The$1 million cooperative project provided 
improvements at a dozen intersections, including 
coordinated signals for smoother traffic flow and 
pedestrian safety. 

In a new approach to traffic safety, 1000 high - 
visibility lane reflectors have been installed at ac- 
cident-prone locations on five key parkways to test 
their effectiveness. The new-type reflectors project 
slightly above the road surface, retract when struck by 
a vehicle and spring back into place. The units are 
designed as a supplement to painted lines, particularly 
for night driving. 

Extensive updating of traffic lights and street 
lighting is also planned to improve roadway safety. 
Design work on 25 traffic signal locations is nearly 
complete. Modernization of the lighting system on a 
three-mile stretch of Veterans of Foreign Wars Parkway 
in West Roxbury and Brookline is scheduled for 
completion next year. Similar projects were finished 
during the year in sections of Alewife Brook Parkway, 
Cambridge, and Hammond Pond Parkway. Newton- 
Brookline. 



23 



services, Wo 
rain Undermanned Police 



Metropolitan District Police played a major role in 
Boston's Phase 1 school desegregation program during 
the 1974-75 school year. In a busy year that taxed the 
undermanned force — reduced by 100 men below its 
655 authorized strength due to a job freeze — police 
also coped with formidable racial incidents, emergency 
assistance to other police jurisdictions and a crack - 
down on the troublesome drinking problem at beaches 
and widespread trespassing and misuse of reservoir 
areas. 

The abnormal work-load was superimposed on the 
traditional police mission of law enforcement and 
security for extensive park, sewerage and water 
properties, and protection of lives and safety of 
millions using recreation facilities and 186 miles of 
expressways, parkways and roadways. 

Meanwhile, in a continuing effort to sharpen 
operations, a multi-purpose, 62-man mobile unit was 
organized and an invaluable aerial traffic reporting 
system was inaugurated. 

The new mobile unit, known as Traffic Oriented 
Patrol Squad (TOPS), has been generally acclaimed as 
an effective, versatile force. Its primary function deals 
with enforcement at high-accident locations and top- 
priority traffic problems, but the specially-trained 
TOPS officers are utilized, too, for quick response to 
any emergency. 

The innovative aerial traffic reporting system was 
created as an informational source for motorists in 
peak traffic periods and to speed up police response 
for disabled vehicles, accidents and tieups. Aboard an 
airplane a veteran police radio dispatcher quickly 
transmits reports to motorists via a Boston radio 
station, which supplies the aircraft and pilot. At the 
same time, the officer flashes reports to MDC 
headquarters to expedite response to emergencies and 
traffic problems. 

The Boston school crisis required mobilization of 
100 to 145 men for extended periods, mostly for duty in 
South Boston and school bus escorts, diminishing to a 
score of men at times. At its height the response 
demanded large-scale cancellation of days off, con- 
siderable overtime and deployment of a tactical force, 
mounted officers, motorcycles, plainclothesmen, 
communications and other support units. Overtime 
expense totaled $610,000, of which $500,000 was 
reimbursed by the state. 

Performance of the sensitive assignment drew 
editorial praise from one Boston daily newspaper for 
"admirable courage ... cool professionalism ... 
remarkable restraint" in the face of "provocation and 
exacting circumstances." 




(MDC photo by Officer Walter Dayton) 

School busing tensions overflowed into the summer 
season, exploding into a series of racial confrontations 
and violent episodes at MDC's Carson Beach in South 
Boston, retaliatory stoning of automobiles by par- 
tisans on various MDC roadways, injuries and arrests. 
The climactic clash was touched off at Carson Beach 
by the appearance of 2000 blacks for a swim-in and 
picnic to demonstrate their right to use the beach in the 
wake of previous inter-racial altercations. About 800 
MDC, Boston and State Police struggled to keep apart 
the demonstrators and an estimated 4000 whites. 
Mounted officers and men on foot waded into the water 
to turn back some participants offshore. The tense 
disturbance ended with 40 injured and 10 arrests. 

Elsewhere, MDC Police responded to calls tor 
assistance in disturbances at the State House, Charles 
Street Jail and various cities and towns. Nearly 200 
officers were on hand in Lexington, Arlington and for 
security coverage of President Ford's visit during the 
bicentennial observance on Patriots Day week-end. The 
frequent need for costly bus rental to transport large 
contingents of men led to the acquisition by the 
Central Services Division of four second-hand MBTA 
buses at $100 each. Three vehicles were refurbished as 
passenger buses and the fourth was revamped as a 
fully-equipped, mobile command base. 

An order barring the public from eight Metropolitan 
Boston reservoirs to safeguard quality of drinking 
water against growing pollution infractions by 
trespassers, bathers and dogs resulted in scores of 
arrests. At beaches, a crackdown was launched on use 
of alcoholic beverages which police linked to 
disturbances, a rash ot accidents and a severe trash 
problem. One district court judge not only imposed a 
fine but ordered violators to clean up Nahant Beach. 



24 




(Boston Globe photo) 
HEAVY DEMANDS ON METROPOLITAN POLICE 
required acquisition of buses for transporting men to 
emergency scenes and for use as a mobile command 
base [left page]. Mounted officers with MDC police 
boats in background [above] were on hand to separate 
demonstrators in explosive racial confrontation at 
Carson Beach, South Boston. Motorcycle police 
escorts for buses were among special units used in 
Boston's school crisis. 



Expertise developed by the Detective Unit has led to 
participation in special inter-agency, crime-fighting 
forces in Metropolitan Boston. Two men have been 
assigned to a new, hard-hitting unit directed by the 
Suffolk County District Attorney's office. The 
Federally-financed agency, known as the Suffolk 
County Investigations and Prosecution Project, works 
with Federal agencies and has already had a notable 
record in smashing narcotic, counterfeit and gambling 
rings identified with organized crime. Two narcotic 
investigators are involved in a Federally-funded, in- 
teragency unit aimed at diversion and illegal sale of 
drugs by wholesalers, doctors and druggists. Another 
detective team is assigned to the Metropolitan En- 
forcement Group's North Shore Unit dealing with 
narcotic investigation. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975. 
Metropolitan District Police investigated nearly 5000 
crimes, an increase of 25% over the preceding year. 
Almost half of these crimes are categorized as major 
crimes, involving violence or theft of property. The 
police cleared by arrest more than half of these, but 
crime continues to be a problem for MDC. as well as 
cities and towns. 

Although a total of 1131 motor vehicles were 




(Boston Globe p 

reported stolen from MDC property, the police did 
recover a total of 1984 vehicles, half of which had been 
stolen elsewhere. The value of property recovered 
approached $4 million. A total of 5373 accidents were 
investigated and about 1800 people were transported to 
hospitals. With the advent of the TOPS unit dedicated 
to selective enforcement activity, motor vehicle 
citations increased 40°o to 24.643. 

The number of assists to other police departments 
increased 52°o to 1979. ranging from the large effort to 
aid Boston in its school busing problems to a single 
car blocking a road near a fire. General assists to the 
public exceed 11 .500. 

Use of MDC's harbor islands and Charles and 
Mystic rivers continues to expand, imposing a growing 
demand on MDC Police boat patrols. More than 
200,000 visitors voyaged to Georges. Lovell's and 
Peddocks islands during the 1975 season, requiring 
considerable police activity on the islands and in 
harbor waters. Six officers manning two patrol boats 
made 4138 trips to the islands and provided a great 
variety of services, including rescue of 14 persons. 63 
assists. 29 transported to hospitals, first aid rendered 
to 832 persons and 48 search and rescue missions. 
Twenty-four boats were towed, four recovered and 321 
inspected. There were 13 responses to island fires. 



25 



How MDC Organization Delivers Regional Services 



The Metropolitan District Commission's concept is 
based on the belief that communities in Metropolitan 
Boston can derive greater benefits with more efficiency 
and lower costs through regional operation of parks, 
water and sewerage systems. 

It has become increasingly evident that many facets 
of urban life and the environment can be developed and 
administered most effectively without regard for 
municipal boundaries. 

This trend originated in 1889 with the creation of the 
Metropolitan Sewerage Commission as the nation's 
first legally-constituted metropolitan district. Then 
came the Metropolitan Parks District in 1893 and the 
Metropolitan Water Board in 1895. The three agencies 
were consolidated into the Metropolitan District 
Commission in 1919 for greater efficiency and 
economy. 

MDC operations are governed by a five-member 
Commission. A Commissioner named by the Secretary 
of Environmental Affairs, subject to the Governor's 
approval, serves as full-time executive and ad- 
ministrative head of the agency. Four part-time 
Associate Commissioners appointed by the Governor 
join the Commissioner at weekly meetings in setting 
policy, approving contracts and participating in 
decisions on departmental operations. The Com- 
missioner and Associate Commissioners each have an 
equal vote, except that "concurrence of the Com- 
missioner and of not less than two Associate Com- 
missioners shall be required for the execution of 
contracts and of such other official actions of the 
Commission as may be required by law." 

The Reorganization Act of 1969 establishing a 
cabinet system placed MDC under the jurisdiction of 
the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs. 

As a department of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, MDC is under the jurisdiction of the 
Governor and Legislature, including approval of its 
operations budget and bond issues for capital con- 
struction. 

To keep cities and towns informed about activities, 
public hearings are required annually for municipal 
officials in the Parks, Sewerage and Water Districts 
regarding improvements, extensions, new facilities 
and financial data. 

The organizational structure includes six ad- 
ministrative or staff units: Commission Secretary, 
General Counsel, Commissioner's Office and Special 
Projects and also the divisions of Administrative 
Services and Central Services, both reporting to an 
Executive Assistant for Finance and Administration. 



The Administrative Services Division has responsibility 
for personnel and labor relations, data processing, 
budget, bookkeeping and payroll. Major support 
services are assigned to the Central Services Division. 
These include purchase and maintenance of motorized 
equipment, bulk purchase of supplies, sign produc- 
tion, maintenance of MDC headquarters building, 
police stations and Commission-owned homes and 
acquiring special equipment for emergency operations. 
A centralized facility is being planned to house a 
supply distribution center, motor vehicle maintenance 
and other services. 

Departmental operations are performed by seven 
divisions: Engineering, Sewerage, Water, Parks, 
Police, Environmental Planning and Environmental 
Quality. These divisions report to the department's 
Chief Engineer. 

An in-house Project Analysis Board reviews 
proposed projects and submits recommendations to 
the Commission. A Land Board, another in-house unit, 
establishes priorities for land acquisition and 
recommends action on land use, sales, parks 
development and related matters. 

All legal aspects of the agency's functions are 
supervised by the Office of General Counsel, such as 
drafting legal opinions, contracts, proposed 
legislation, directives and rules and regulations, 
dealing with public bidding procedure, conducting or 
participating in quasi-judicial hearings in the areas of 
personnel, labor relations and police administration, 
and advising the Commission on various questions of 
law. 

The legal process of land takings, easements and 
conveyances is performed by the Right of Way Section 
for recreational, flood control, sewerage and water 
supply purposes. Permits, easements, deeds and other 
types of instruments are also processed, along with 
maintaining and updating a land inventory. The section 
has an enforcement unit which deals with en- 
croachment on MDC lands, pollution of rivers and 
streams and other similar violations. 

A Planning Section is primarily concerned with park 
and recreational development, roadway system im- 
provements, landscaping and open space acquisition. 
The Financial Office operates a data-processing unit 
for payroll and other departmental uses, processes all 
receipts and disbursements, maintains fiscal records 
and serves as the department's accounting office. 
Interviews and job placement functions are handled by 
a Personnel Office, which also negotiates collective 
bargaining agreements, maintains personnel records, 



26 



co-ordinates enrollment in training courses and 
conducts an alcoholic rehabilitation program. A 
reference library serves as a source of historical data, 
publications, reports and other information. 

OPERATING DIVISIONS 
ENGINEERING 

The Engineering Division is responsible for plan- 
ning, engineering and supervising construction of 
facilities for the Water and Sewerage divisions, flood 
control and drainage and major Parks District projects. 
The division's chief construction engineer also has 
administrative management and engineering oversight 
of the Parks Engineering Section, which was formerly 
a separate division. Completed facilities are turned 
over to operating divisions for maintenance and 
operation. 

Eleven new contracts amounting to $1.4 million 
were awarded during fiscal 1975. In addition, work was 
still in progress or contracts were completed totaling 
$33.9 million for 12 projects begun in prior years. 

The contracts in effect in 1975 totaled $19.4 million 
for the Water Division, $8.6 for the Sewerage Division, 
$212,000 for the Parks Division and $7.1 million for 
flood control and drainage. Additionally, structural 
work was started on the new Charles River Dam under a 
$35 million contract in cooperation with the Army 
Corps of Engineers which is supervising the project. 

Parks Engineering Section personnel are engaged in 
Parks District projects involving designing, 
engineering services, contract document preparation 
and supervision of new construction, as well as major 
repairs of park and recreation facilities, roadways, 
bridges, drawbridges and locks, street lighting and 
traffic controls. Upon completion, new facilities come 
under the jurisdiction of the Parks Division for 
operation and routine maintenance. 

Thirty-nine contracts were awarded for Parks 
District work during the fiscal year totaling $4.4 
million. There were 23 additional contracts previously 
awarded and still active or completed in fiscal 1975, 
amounting to $5 million. 

Other Engineering Division activities consist of land 
surveys, hydraulic investigations of water and sewer 
lines; river hydraulics, materials testing, water and 
sewage analysis, photographic work and aerial 
photography, architectural services, landscaping, park 
and recreational developments; legal assistance, 
preparation of contracts, review and selection of 
consultant submittals, and participation on com- 
mittees for land acquisition, solid waste, water 
resources, environmental impacts, water quality and 
project analyses. 



WATER 

The purpose of the Water Division is to furnish pure 
water to local distribution systems of communities in 
the Metropolitan Water District and such other cities 
and towns as can be reasonably supplied. 

Twenty-five communities receive their entire water 
supply and seven a partial supply, with an area of 309 
square miles and 1,874,000 population. The City of 
Woburn (pop. 37, 406) was admitted as the 33rd member 
in 1972 as a partial user, but will not be linked to the 
system until completion of a new pipeline and pum- 
ping facilities. The Town of Wellesley (pop. 28,051), 
which became the 34th member in 1974, has a 
"readiness to serve" agreement and plans to rely on its 
own supply for the present. Ten communities in 
Central Massachusetts located near MDC reservoirs 
and aqueducts are supplied in whole or in part under 
special agreements. 

The Water District's sources are the Quabbin, 
Wachusett and Sudbury watersheds and the runoff of 
the Ware River watershed during certain periods. 
Storage reservoirs on these watersheds have a capacity 
of 495 billion gallons, principally at Quabbin Reservoir 
with its capacity of 412 billion gallons and Wachusett's 
67 billion gallons. However, Quabbin has not reached 
capacity since 1961, the beginning of a six-year 
drought which lowered the reservoir to 45% of 
maximum elevation. Its 1975 high level was 95.3°o. 

The water supply is delivered to Metropolitan 
Boston through 131 miles of aqueducts and tunnels 
and distributed via approximately 260 miles of 
pipelines, mostly by gravity flow. 

Facilities under control of the Water Division in- 
clude six storage reservoirs with 467 square miles of 
tributary watershed, a water surface of 30,000 acres, 
four hydro-electric power stations, 16 miles of high 
tension power transmission lines, 12 distribution 
pumping stations to service high elevations and 16 
distribution reservoirs with a capacity of 3.1 billion 
gallons. 

Ten construction contracts were completed during 
fiscal 1975 for a total of $1,671,043 including a 
$1,470,000 pipeline linking the system with Woburn. 
The other work dealt with various maintenance and 
repair requirements. 

SEWERAGE 

An intricate sewerage and treatment system is 
under the jurisdiction of the Sewerage Division. Its vast 
sewage collection and pollution abatement functions 
require maintenance and operation of 12 pumping 
stations, two treatment plants, four pre-treatment 
headworks. a detention and chlorination station for 
combined stormwater and sewage overflows along 
Charles River Basin, a pre-treatment and chlorination 



27 



station for combined overflows at Mystic River Basin 
and 227 miles of trunk sewers. 

Forty-three cities and towns covering 407 square 
miles, with 2,146,366 inhabitants, are members of the 
Sewerage District. Wastewater flows through 5087 
miles of local sewers connected to MDC trunk lines at 
1791 locations, an increase of 40 miles over the 
previous year. The municipal lines link 397,741 in- 
dividual connections with the MDC system, an in- 
crease of 3764 in the past year. Per capita cost of 
sewerage operations in 1975 was $8.34, of which $4.80 
was for maintenance and operations and $3.54 for debt 
service. 

Average daily sewage load was 429 million gallons 
and the 24-hour maximum flow was 658 mgd passing 
through primary treatment and chlorination at Deer 
Island and Nut Island plants before a discharge via 
outfalls into outer Boston Harbor. The process 
provides screening and grit removal, pre-chlorination, 
pre-aeration, primary sedimentation and post 
chlorination. Raw sludge is treated by thickening and 
high rate digestion prior to discharge, producing a by- 
product of methane gas utilized for electrical power 
and heating. 

There were eight contracts awarded by the division 
or in force during fiscal 1974 totaling $716,523, in- 
cluding a $602,500 contract for dredging over a 48-inch 
pipe siphon at Weymouth-Fore River to accommodate 
larger shipping vessels. Other work involved main- 
tenance and repair requirements. 

PARKS— RECREATION 

The Parks and Recreation Division is responsible for 
maintenance of extensive Parks District property and 
supervising recreation programs. 

Under its jurisdiction are nearly 15,000 acres of 
parkland, including five major reservations and 17 
miles of beaches, 26 skating rinks, 19 swimming 
pools, three 18-holegolf courses, three harbor islands, 
the Charles, Mystic and Neponset rivers within the 
District, 168 miles of roadway and a wide variety of 
other recreation facilities and parks. 

Its Recreation Services Section develops, schedules 
and oversees recreational use of facilities, such as 
rinks, pools, Hatch Shell, stadiums, athletic fields, 
special events and miscellaneous recreational activity. 

The division also operates locks and drawbridges 
and has administrative and maintenance responsibility 
for the Franklin Park and Stone zoological parks. 

POLICE 

Primary mission of the Police Division is protection 
of MDC property and people using its facilities and 
patrol of 168 miles of MDC roadways and 18 miles of 
the Northeast, Southeast and Central Artery ex- 
pressways within Suffolk County, which are main- 



tained by the State Department of Public Works. The 
division also has full police powers in any community 
where MDC has property. 

Its broad responsibility for law enforcement at 
parklands, waterways, harbor islands and roadways 
requires highly diversified functions and equipment. 
Daily use of a K-9 unit, detectives, narcotics officers, 
mounted police and boat officers enables the force to 
patrol a widespread and diversified environment. Patrol 
officers with specialized capabilities, such as scuba 
diving and bomb disposal, are often called from their 
regular duties to perform these hazardous functions. 
Special equipment, such as breathalyzers, radar, 
underwater communications and police boats are used 
regularly by MDC officers. 

A new Traffic Oriented Patrol Squad (TOPS) 
represents a mobile force available for special 
problems and events anywhere in the Greater Boston 
area. Each weekday a Metropolitan District officer 
overlooks the traffic scene from an aircraft provided by 
a local radio station. He is in a unique position to 
provide information about breakdowns and tieups, as 
well as directing service and emergency units trying to 
ease traffic jams and respond to accidents. 

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING 

Responsibility for a wide range of environmental 
concerns has been assigned to the Environmental 
Planning Division. The agency administers the Federal 
and State Environmental Policy Acts for MDC, such as 
preparation of environmental impact reports and 
assessments and review of similar reports by other 
agencies affecting MDC facilities. It also has prime 
responsibility for water and wastewater planning and 
program implementation. Other services include 
representing MDC on Federal, State and regional 
committees, land use planning, assistance on 
regulatory permit procedures and consultant contract 
administration and management. 

Currently, the division is coordinating and 
managing the wastewater study for the Eastern 
Massachusetts Metropolitan Area in conjunction with 
the Army Corps of Engineers. It appears that the study 
will result in the implementation of an $855 million 
construction program for pollution control facilities. 

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 

Specialized services dealing with environmental 
problems affecting the air, land and water are furnished 
by the Environmental Quality Division. Its primary 
functions are developing and managing projects 
designed to protect and improve the environmental 
quality of the areas under MDC jurisdiction, monitoring 
water quality of the metropolitan rivers and their 
tributaries and MDC beaches and pools and advising 
MDC on matters affecting the environment. 



28 



Assessments Primary Source of MDC Financing 



As a regional public agency, the Metropolitan 
District Commission is financed primarily by 
assessments on 54 communities which are members of 
one or more of its three districts. 

Additional money comes from the State Highway 
Fund, State General Fund, state allocations for certain 
flood control projects and miscellaneous revenue such 
as fees, rentals, licenses, permits, fines, penalties, 
sales, Federal reimbursements or grants, etc. 

The operating budget and bond issues for capital 
constructions are subject to approval by the Governor 
and Legislature. 

Principal financing sources for the three districts 
are the following: 

PARKS — Recreational capital construction by 
bond issues, amortized by assessments based on 
property tax valuations of communities in the district; 
maintenance of boulevards and reservations and police 
costs by 60% from the State Highway Fund, 1% from 
the State's General Fund and 39% by member cities 
and towns with one-third based on population and two- 
thirds on valuation; highway and bridge construction 
by legislative allocations from state highway bond 
issues. For fiscal 1976 the formula for maintenance 
and police will be revised to 67% from the State High- 
way Fund and 33% by member cities and towns. 

WATER — Charge of $200 per million gallons, with 
special provisions for communities outside the Water 
District. A $240 rate was established for calendar 1975, 
reflecting in fiscal 1976 income. The increase was 
attributed to the inflationary trend and partially to the 
transition from deficit financing to a pay-as-you go 
system, which became effective in 1974. 



SEWERAGE — Debt requirements apportioned on 
the basis of capacity of municipal sewers connected to 
MDC sewerage system; maintenance expense 
assessed on the basis of population. 

For the fiscal year ending June 30. 1975. the 
Commission spent $47,882,670 on maintenance and 
operations, an increase of $3,045,408 or 6.8% over the 
previous year. Interest and principal payments on 
bonds issued for capital projects and water fund 
deficits amounted to $24,676,291. up $1,143,109 or 
4.9% over 1974. The combined expenditure was 
$72,558,961, a rise of $4,188,517 or 6.1%. 

An additional $4,251 ,973 was expended for highway 
construction from state highway bond funds and for 
certain flood control projects from other special 
authorizations, which do not reflect in assessments on 
MDC cities and towns. 

The $76,810,934 total represented 62% for main- 
tenance and operations, 32% for MDC bonded debt 
and 6% for expenditures from state bond funds. 

The $3,045,408 rise in maintenance and operations 
was attributed primarily to a $2,905,277 increase in 
payroll. Although the number of employees fell 
slightly, the cost was affected by a 6.2% cost of living 
pay increase effective only for the last half of fiscal 
1974 but for the entire fiscal 1975 year. The police 
payroll, alone, rose by $1,182,072. This included 
$610,000 for overtime duty in Boston's Phase 1 school 
desegregation program and such factors as retroactive 
court time payments, education incentive benefits and 
step-rate increases. About $500,000 of the Boston 
school expense was reimbursed by the state, recorded 
as Parks District income. 







EXPENDITURES 








1975 




1974 






Operations 


Debt 


Operations 


Debt 


Administration 


$ 834.376 




$ 766.443 




"Parks 


26,501,221 


$ 5.650.234 


25.418.856 


$ 5.103.022 


Sewerage 


10.432.385 


7.639.461 


9.436.165 


7.576.295 


Water 


10,114,688 


11.386.596 


9^215.798 


10.853.865 




$47,882,670 


$24,676,291 


$44,837,262 


$23,533,182 


Total 


$72,558,961 




$68,370,444 




* Includes cost of MDC Police operations 

Note - An additional 44,251.973 was spent in 1975 and S4, 273,945 in 1974 for highway construction projects financed b\ . bond issues an6 

flood control and other special authorizations financed by state General Fund bond issues rather than assessments on MDC cities and to.- 



29 




State 

Highway 

Fund 

State 

General 

Fund 

Revenue 

Water 
Deficit 
Bonds 



PRINCIPAL INCOME SOURCES 
1975 1974 

15,544,558 $14,856,754 

16,448,453 14,082,224 

20,293,639 12,450,665 



15,900,733 

347,071 
3,402,621 

7,785,000 

$ 79,722,075 



15,448,223 




314,395 
2,938,945 

4,550,000 
$ 64,641 ,206 



Admissions, Sales, 
Fees, etc. 



Note: Income figure for Water differs slightly from assessment table, due to various adjustments. Sale of power, licenses, fees, concession permits, < 
do not accrue to the Commission for re-use, but rather flow directly into the appropriate fund and thereby reduces assessments against cities , 
towns. Federal reimbursements ordinarily have the same effect. 

* Represents water fund deficit in 1974. This is anticipated to be the last bond authorization to cover such deficits. 





















'PERSONNEL 


EXPENDITURES 






Administration 


1975 
$ 600,493 






1974 
$ 524,976 


1973 

$ 566,340 




Engineering 


3,622,717 






3,494,219 


3,324,074 




Highway Eng. 


478,024 






492,929 


476,456 




Parks & 
Parks Eng. 


9,829,974 






9,114,975 


8,692,089 




Police 

Sewerage 

Water 
Total 


9,008,097 

4,958,568 

5,301 ,464 
$33,799,337 






7,826,025 

4,549,820 

4,891,116 

$30,894,060 


7,365,332 

4,487,642 

4,922,443 
$29,834,376 




"Includes permanent, 


temporary and seasonal 


employees 


as of June 30. 







30 





TOTAL PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY EMPLOYEES AS OF JUNE 30 










1975 






1974 






1973 






Perm. 


Temp. 


Total 


Perm. 


Temp. 


Total 


Perm. 


Temp. 


Total 


Administration 


54 


1 


55 


57 


4 


61 


56 


6 


62 


Engineering 


258 


- 


258 


259 


- 


259 


274 


- 


274 


Highway Engineering 


- 


39 


39 


- 


43 


43 


- 


46 


46 


Parks & Parks Eng. 


684 


1120 


1804 


658 


1094 


1752 


668 


940 


1608 


Police 


516 


26 


542 


579 


23 


602 


551 


23 


574 


Sewerage 


437 


1 


438 


461 


2 


463 


441 


- 


441 


Water 


509 


13 


522 


507 


64 


571 


510 


41 


551 


Total 


2458 


1200 


3658 


2521 


1230 


3751 


2500 


1056 


3556 



MDC's debt structure has shown a flattening trend in recent years, but bond issue obligations rose to $283 
million in 1975, an increase of $22 million. 

In the next few years, debt retirement is expected to compensate for anticipated new bond issues and stabi lize 
the debt level. However, a rise is likely eventually for large-scale construction of water supply and distribution 
facilities, costly pollution control installations to meet Federal requirements and several major recreation 
projects. 

A significant factor in the Water Fund indebtedness has been the issuance of long-term bonds to cover annual 
deficits, a procedure instituted by law in 1946 and responsible for borrowing $109.8 million by 1975. of which 
$60.2 million is currently outstanding. This practice ended when MDC's long-standing proposal for a pay-as-you- 
go system was authorized by 1973 legislation. The changeover was implemented in the 1974 rate, requiring an 
increase from $120 per million gallons to $200. The additional revenue affected fiscal 1975 receipts. A $240 rate 
was necessary, effective January 1, 1975, with receipts credited to fiscal 1976. It was expected that this rate 
would remain stable for the following year. 



OUTSTANDING DEBT, JUNE 30 
(In millions of dollars) 





Sewage 


'Water 


Parks 


1975 


89.993 


137.739 


55.650 


1974 


87.047 


132.646 


41.481 


1973 


91 .301 


130.268 


39.997 


1972 


95.555 


129.285 


40.353 


1971 


93.659 


117.663 


37.128 



Total 
$283,382 
261 174 
261 566 
265 193 
248.450 



'Includes Water Fund deficit debt. 



31 





TOTAL ASSESSMENTS FOR METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS FOR 1974* 






Metropolitan 


Metropolitan Parks 


Metropolitan 




Cities and Towns 


Water 


and Boulevards 


Sewerage System 


Total 


Arlington 


$465,207.00 


$484,880.51 


$398,226.06 


$1,348,313.57 


Ashland 






42,187.68 


42,187.68 


Bedford 






68,005.03 


68,005.03 


Belmont 


206,063.20 


333,404.18 


190,745.14 


730,212.52 


Boston 


10,510,396.80 


3,248,601.00 


5,297,777.16 


19,056,774.96 


Brain tree 




343,973.31 


213,465.00 


557,438.31 


Brookline 


541 ,768.60 


619,856.84 


352,418.65 


1,514,044.09 


Burlington 






125,613.03 


125,613.03 


Cambridge 


50,160.00 


685,709.76 


990,037.30 


1,725,907.06 


Canton 


116,942.40 


205,150.41 


116,218.16 


438,310.97 


Chelsea 


263,251.00 


142,649.66 


284,923.06 


690,823.72 


Cohasset 




5,299.72 




5,299.72 


Dedham 




325,915.99 


216,206.57 


542,122.56 


Dover 




76,152.77 




76,152.77 


Everett 


580,877.80 


484,171.18 


342,275.38 


1,407,324.36 


Framingham 






305,188.89 


305,188.89 


Hingham 




198,886.92 


52,193.53 


251 ,080.45 


Hull 




72,324.23 




72,324.23 


Lexington 


318,165.80 




229,087.52 


547,253.32 


Lynn 




663,451.75 




663,451.75 


Lynnfield Water District 24,326.20 






24,326.20 


Maiden 


547,437.80 


349,349.88 


421 ,566.23 


1,318,353.91 


Marblehead 


149,907.80 






149,907.80 


Medford 


610,345.80 


448,410.87 


544,871.78 


1,603,628.45 


Melrose 


194,836.60 


318,289.59 


259,216.79 


772,342.98 


Milton 


166,300.60 


335,780.64 


254,766.30 


756,847.54 


Nahant 


39,573.00 


38,068.81 




77,641.81 


Natick 






185,267.54 


185,267.54 


Needham 


67,289.60 


403,969.29 


207,294.73 


678,553.62 


Newton 


885,372.40 


855,129.88 


747,509.97 


2,488,012.25 


Norwood 


360,518.00 




186,603.10 


547,121.10 


Peabody 


57,390.00 






57,390.00 


Quincy 


751,166.20 


686,884.94 


726,211.44 


2,164,262.58 


Randolph 






152,065.86 


152,065.86 


Reading 






111,134.47 


111,134.47 


Revere 


256,387.60 


295,888.47 


262,883.68 


815,159.75 


Saugus 


226,199.00 


258,881.71 




485,080.71 


Somerville 


795,003.80 


487,830.75 


622,510.15 


1,905,344.70 


Stoneham 


243,369.00 


189,687.81 


146,952.31 


580,009.12 


Stoughton 






109,462.94 


109,462.94 


Swampscott 


106,951.20 


64,639.92 




171,591.12 


Wakefield 


174,618.00 


249,012.34 


165,894.75 


589,525.09 


Walpole 






93,638.60 


93,638.60 


Waltham 


857,582.60 


673,672.22 


377,350.97 


1,908,605.79 


Watertown 


354,082.40 


335,114.05 


280,465.62 


969,662.07 


Wellesley 




376,630.57 


160,057.44 


536,688.01 


Weston 


88,469.60 


225,003.39 




313,472.99 


Westwood 




172,020.94 


84,531.47 


256,552.41 


Weymouth 




494,852.53 


336,584.87 


831,437.40 


Wilmington 






86,335.98 


86,335.98 


Winchester 


53,001.40 


263,371.62 


239,159.53 


555,532.55 


Winthrop 


140,460.00 


131,639.42 


151,281.68 


423,381.10 


Woburn 






310,266.52 


310,266.52 




$20,203,421.20 


$15,544,557.87 


$16,448,452.88 


$52,196,431.95 


"Note: Assessments for 1974 were received in 


fiscal 1975. 







32 











DISTRICT MEMBERSHIP 








Water 


Parks 


Sewerage Water 


Parks Sewerage 


Arlington 




X 


X 


X 


Revere x 


X X 


Ashland 








X 


Saugus x 


X 


Belmont 




X 


X 


X 


Somerville x 


X X 


'Bedford 








X 


Stoneham x 


X X 


Boston 




X 


X 


X 


Stoughton 


X 


Braintree 






X 


X 


Swampscott x 


X 


Brookline 




X 


X 


X 


Wakefield x 


X X 


Burlington 








X 


Walpole 


X 


Cambridge 




X 


X 


X 


Waltham x 


X X 


Canton 




X 


X 


X 


Watertown x 


X X 


Chelsea 




X 


X 


X 


'"Wellesley x 


X X 


Cohasset 






X 




Weston x 


X 


Dedham 






X 


X 


Westwood 


X X 


Dover 






X 




Weymouth 


X X 


Everett 




X 


X 


X 


Wilmington 


X 


Framingham 








X 


Winchester x 


X X 


Hingham 






X 


X 


Winthrop x 


X X 


*Holbrook 








X 


"Woburn x 


X 


Hull 






X 




Totals 34 


37 ~43 


Lexington 




X 




X 






Lynn 






X 








Lynnfield Water Dist. 


X 






(Beyond the Water District the MDC furnishes 


Maiden 




X 


X 


X 


the entire water supply 


for Chicopee. South 


Marblehead 




X 






Hadley Fire District No. 


1 and Wilbraham. a 


Medford 




X 


X 


X 


partial supply to Clinton 


Framingham. Leom- 


Melrose 




X 


X 


X 


inster. Marlboro. Northboro and Southboro 


Milton 




X 


X 


X 


and an emergency sta 


ndby connection for 


Nahant 




X 


X 




Worcester.) 




Natick 








X 






Needham 




X 


X 


X 






Newton 




X 


X 


X 


Membership 




Norwood 




X 




X 






Peabody 




X 






3 Districts 24 




Quincy 




X 


X 


X 


2 Districts 12 




Randolph 








X 


1 District 18 




Reading 








X 


54 




'Bedford 


joined the Sewerage District in June. 1970. witr 


) sewage for part of the town handled through the town of Lexington 


under special 


:ontract. 


Holbrook became a member of Sewe 


age District in January. 1971. but is not contributing sewage to the 


system. 














"Woburn 


was admitted to Water 


District in 


August. 1972. 


and Wellesley in March. 1974. but neither is 


5emg supplied pending 


completion of connections. 











METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 
District Membership 

Porks - Water - Sewerage 
Total Members -54 

Member of all three MDC districts 

Member of two districts 
D Member of one district 
P Parks - 37 
W Water - 34 
S Sewerage - 43 




Note: Woburn and Wellesley are new members of the Water District but are not being supplied pending 
completion of connections.